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该题平均耗时:1m53s,平均正确率:41.6% 添加做题笔记

Because the framers of the United States Constitution (written in 1787) believed that protecting property rights relating to inventions would encourage the new nation’s economic growth, they gave Congress—the national legislature—a constitutional mandate to grant patents for inventions. The resulting patent system has served as a model for those in other nations. Recently, however, scholars have questioned whether the American system helped achieve the framers’ goals. These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were “antipatent” and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. This argument is based partly on examination of court decisions in cases where patent holders (“patentees”)brought suit alleging infringement of their patent rights. In the 1820s, for instance, 75 percent of verdicts were decided against the patentee.The proportion of verdicts for the patentee began to increase in the 1830s, suggesting to these scholars that judicial attitudes toward patent rights began shifting then.

Not all patent disputes in the early nineteenth entury were litigated, however, and litigated cases were not drawn randomly from the population of disputes. Therefore the rate of verdicts in favor of patentees cannot be used by itself to gauge changes in judicial attitudes or enforceability of patent rights. If early judicial decisions were prejudiced against patentees, one might expect that subsequent courts—allegedly more supportive of patent rights—would reject the former legal precedents. But pre-1830 cases have been cited as frequently as later decisions, and they continue to be cited today,suggesting that the early decisions, many of which clearly declared that patent rights were a just recompense for inventive ingenuity,provided a lasting foundation for patent law.The proportion of judicial decisions in favor of patentees began to increase during the 1830s because of a change in the underlying population of cases brought to trial. This change was partly due to an 1836 revision to the patent system:an examination procedure, still in use today, was instituted in which each application is scrutinized for its adherence to patent law. Previously,patents were automatically granted upon payment of a $30 fee.

【OG19-P419-529题】The author of the passage cites which of the following as evidence challenging the argument referred to in highlight lines


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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友W7s5lX6S提供。更多GMAT题目请

网友解析

当前版本由 Nat**** 更新于2016-09-26 13:14:53感谢由 Nat**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

题干KW: highlight lines  (推断题)

定位:定位到第二结构第层(3)次

整个第二结构都是用来反驳scholar的观点的第3层次是证据。


错误答案特征:

A. 1820层次定位混淆

B. 1794层次定位混淆

D. 1830层次定位混淆

E. 1836层次定位混淆


正确选项特征:

C.是原文的内容的同义转换。

(3)But pre-1830 cases have been cited as frequently as later decisions, and they continue to be cited today, suggesting that the early decisions, many of which clearly declared that patent rights were a just recompense for inventive ingenuity, provided a lasting foundation for patent law.




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题目讨论 (如果对题目有任何的疑惑,欢迎在这里提出来,大家会帮你解答的哦~)
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  • 用户头像

    iloveeva

    什么是第几结构第几层次
    5楼  | 2019-02-26 02:50:13 回复
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    嘻嘻嘻521

    第一段提出一派学者的观点,根据专利者胜诉比例判断专利权的司法态度,该派学者认为1830s后支持专利者的裁决比例增加,是因为司法态度这个时期转变为利好。第二段作者批判了这个观点,立刻指出胜诉比例不反应司法态度,接着进一步说明,pre-1830 cases经常被后人引用因为它奠定了专利法的基础(说明了司法态度一直都没有变的 ,就是第3题考点,选B),最后作者指出专利者胜诉比例的提高的真正原因,是多了一道上庭前筛除歪瓜裂枣的程序,所以不是司法态度的转变。感觉这篇阅读非常有GMAT阅读逻辑结构代表性的-----引用网友
    3楼  | 2018-12-08 23:06:03 回复
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    anthony2333

    先定位要反驳的观点:These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were “antipatent”and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. 专利拥有者维权失败是因为法官有偏见,会无故驳回诉讼。文中反驳该观点的论据有两处,一是说明该阶段的诉讼不具有代表性,不够;一是说明1830年前后诉讼判决被引用的概率相同。选项C正是文章提出的第二个论据。

    A.    The proportion of cases that were decided against patentees in the 1820s

    这个比例是用来支持学者观点的

    B.    The total number of patent disputes that were litigated from 1794 to 1830

    文章没给出这个number

    C.     The fact that later courts drew upon the legal precedents set in pre-1830 patent cases

    D.    The fact that the proportion ofjudicial decisions in favor of patentees began to increase during the 1830s

    这个事实也是用来支持学者观点的

    E.    The constitutional rationale for the 1836 revision of the patent system

    文章没有给出1836年修订专利法的理论依据

    选C

    4楼  | 2018-11-29 16:41:41 回复
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    发呆的夜之亡魂

    第一第二段的观点是对立的,然后划黄线部分是第一个观点的部分,而且讲的是1830s之前的东西然后作者是反对这个观点的,然后就定位第二段,发现只有C能对应。读文章的时候我发现第二段讲到了好几个和第一段对立的观点以及一些对应时间,所以稍微记一下回来对应也就不难了
    2楼  | 2018-06-27 10:22:46 回复
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    杀鸡770

    题目高亮部分跑偏了 
    先定位要反驳的观点:These scholars have contended that from 1794 to roughly 1830, American inventors were unable to enforce property rights because judges were “antipatent”and routinely invalidated patents for arbitrary reasons. 专利拥有者维权失败是因为法官有偏见,会无故驳回诉讼。文中反驳该观点的论据有两处,一是说明该阶段的诉讼不具有代表性,不够;一是说明1830年前后诉讼判决被引用的概率相同。选项C正是文章提出的第二个论据。
    1楼  | 2017-10-24 22:34:13 回复
    • 评论用户头像
      杀鸡770: 不是题目跑偏 是要自己定位哈哈哈哈

      2017-10-24 22:36:06 回复

    • 评论用户头像
      肥米: 嗯,你讲的非常清楚

      2017-11-23 19:17:57 回复

    • 评论用户头像
      hhwfd: 点赞!

      2018-02-05 19:35:31 回复

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