In corporate purchasing, competitive scrutiny is typically limited to suppliers of items that are directly related to end products. With “indirect” purchases (such as computers, advertising, and legal services), which are not directly related to production, corporations often favor “supplier partnerships” (arrangements in which the purchaser forgoes the right to pursue alternative suppliers), which can inappropriately shelter suppliers from rigorous competitive scrutiny that might afford the purchaser economic leverage. There are two independent variables‐availability of alternatives and ease of changing suppliers‐that companies should use to evaluate the feasibility of subjecting suppliers of indirect purchases to competitive scrutiny. This can create four possible situations.
In Type 1 situations, there are many alternatives and change is relatively easy. Open pursuit of alternatives‐by frequent competitive bidding, if possible—will likely yield the best results. In Type 2 situations, where there are many alternatives but change is difficult—as for providers of employee health-care benefits—it is important to continuously test the market and use the results to secure concessions from existing suppliers. Alternatives provide a credible threat to suppliers, even if the ability to switch is constrained. In Type 3 situations, there are few alternatives, but the ability to switch without difficulty creates a threat that companies can use to negotiate concessions from existing suppliers. In Type 4 situations, where there are few alternatives and change is difficult, partnerships may be unavoidable.
【OG19-P383-440题】It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to make which of the following recommendations to a company purchasing health care benefits for its employees?
根据题干定位到文章Type 2 situations，有很多alternatives，文章还指出it is important to continuously test the market and use the results to secure concessions from existing suppliers，正是因为替代供应商很多，所以购买者就可以以众多购买者作为谈判的资本，从而使自己能够处于一种优越的地位，从而从当前供应商中获得更多的让步和好处。C选项与文章内容相符。
A，文章未提及更换现有供应商，所以也不会涉及战略规避障碍。B，a provider that also provides other indirect products and services 文章未提及。D，switch providers，文章并不是要讨论更换供应商，而是从现有供应商中获得好处。E，Acknowledge the difficulties involved in replacing the current provider of health care benefits，文章未提及。
c 选项属于是最能体现 type1 的 从两个方面 第一是方式：by frequent competitive bidding 第二是目的：will likely yield the best results. 这个选项都可以体现。
health care benefits对应原文第二段Type2. 动作：原文test the market对应选项Obtain bids from other providers of health care benefits 目的：secure concessions from existing suppliers对应be in a position to negotiate a better deal with the current provider. 公司选定一个health care benefits供应商后，虽然市面上有很多替代者，但想替换掉现有的很难。因此企业就采用“激将法”，对市场现状进行调查然后佯装要换供应商，用这样的举动让现有的供应商做出让步。
2018-08-07 10:04:00 回复
switch 难，alternative 多；在供应商中获得让步 e.承认困难，提供partnership；没有关系，未提到让步
According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?
【OG19-P387-452题】According to the passage, Kerber argued that political leaders thought that the form of government adopted by the United States after the American Revolution depended on which of the following for its success?