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GMAT逻辑目标管理题怎么提高正确率?

雷小豆 2019-08-27 16:28:10
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目标管理题作为GMAT逻辑题中一种特殊的题型,考查的是与目标达成与否相关的逻辑,主要以2种形式出现:1. 帮助目标达成(即增强题)2. 阻碍目标达成(即削弱题)。面对这类题,同学们首先要做的就是看清目标,即题干中“in order to/ to”后面的内容是什么,然后对题干的plan(即方案)进行化简,并提取出逻辑链,最后判断逻辑方向(看是要增强还是削弱)。正确选项必须与目标高度相关,且符合题干要求的逻辑方向。

对于目标管理题中的增强题,正确答案应该有以下的特征:

(1)提出新观点(搭桥增强),说明goal能够达到,或能更好地达到。

(2)排除其他plan成功的可能性(排他增强)

(3)plan百利无害

对于目标管理题中的削弱题,正确答案应该有以下的特征:

(1)其他的plan更有可能成功(他因削弱)

(2)实施plan不会达到预期的目的(结论有误)

(3)plan有害无利

下面我们一起来进行例题解读。


例题1:

Scientists are discussing ways to remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by increasing the amount that is absorbed by plant life. One plan to accomplish this is to establish giant floating seaweed farms in the oceans. When the seaweed plants die, they will be disposed of by being burned for fuel.

Which of the following, if true, would indicate the most serious weakness in the plan above?

(A) Some areas of ocean in the Southern Hemisphere do not contain

sufficient nutrients to support large seaweed farms.

(B) When a seaweed plant is burned, it releases an amount of carbon dioxide comparable to the amount it has absorbed in its lifetime.

(C) Even if seaweed farms prove effective, some people will be reluctant to switch to this new fuel.

(D) Each year about seven billion tons of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere but only about five billion tons are absorbed by plant life.

(E) Seaweed farms would make more money by farming seaweed to sell as nutritional supplements than by farming seaweed to sell as fuel.


解析1:

科学家讨论增加植物吸收二氧化碳来减少过量二氧化碳。一个计划是建立巨大的浮动海藻田。海藻死后,被作为燃料烧掉。

目标:减少二氧化碳

计划:建立浮动海藻田

逻辑链:浮动海藻田→吸收二氧化碳    削弱题,说明计划达不到目标。

(A) 南半球某些地区没有充足的营养支持海藻田 (some 无意义概率,与逻辑链无关,错误)

(B) 海藻烧的时候,产生的二氧化碳和整个生命周期吸收的一样多 (即没有减少二氧化碳,削弱逻辑链,正确)

(C) 即使海藻田有效,一些人不愿换用这种新燃料 (some,无意义概率,无法判断影响多大,错误)

(D) 每年大约70亿吨二氧化碳被排入大气,但只有50亿吨被植物吸收了 (说明植物还是减少了二氧化碳,并不能削弱逻辑链,错误)

(E) 海藻田靠作为营养补充品比作为燃料更赚钱 (赚钱与逻辑链无关,错误)


timg (47).jpg


例题2:

To entice customers away from competitors, Red Label supermarkets have begun offering discounts on home appliances to customers who spend $50 or more on any shopping trip to Red Label. Red Label executives claim that the discount program has been a huge success, since cash register receipts of $50 or more are up thirty percent since the beginning of the program.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the claim of the Red Label executives?

(A) Most people who switched to Red Label after the program began spend more than $50 each time they shop at Red Label.

(B) Most people whose average grocery bill is less than $50 would not be persuaded to spend more by any discount program.

(C) Most people who received discounts on home appliances through Red Label’s program will shop at Red Label after the program ends.

(D) Since the beginning of the discount program, most of the people who spend $50 or more at Red Label are people who have never before shopped there and whose average grocery bill has always been higher than $50.

(E) Almost all of the people who have begun spending $50 or more at Red Label since the discount program began are longtime customers who have increased the average amount of their shopping bills by making fewer trips.


解析2:

为了把顾客从竞争对手那里吸引过来,RL开始给消费满50刀的人打折。经理声称因为买超过50刀的单子增加了30%,所以计划很成功。

目标:从竞争对手那里吸引顾客

计划:满50刀就给打折

逻辑链:满50刀就给打折→超过50的购物单子多了→计划成功  削弱题,说明实际上计划没有成功。

(A) 大多数人在折扣项目开始后转向RL,每次在RL购物时花费超过50美元。(反而增强了题干逻辑,错误)

(B) 大多数食品杂货账单低于50美元的人不会因为折扣计划而花更多的钱 (但也没说这些人会去competitors那里,与逻辑链无关,错误)

(C) 即使促销结束大多数人还是会光顾RL (这还不成功吗?增强了逻辑链,错误)

(D) 那些花了50刀以上的人是之前不来光顾的和经常购买超过50刀的顾客 (还是把人吸引过来了,增强了逻辑链,正确)

(E) 自从打折计划开始以来,几乎所有在RL开始花费50美元或50美元以上的人都是长期顾客,他们通过减少旅行次数来增加购物账单的平均数量(如果bill的增长来自于老顾客,且这些人会一次多买东西而降低光顾的次数,那就无助于收益增加,所以削弱了逻辑链,正确)



例题3:

Twelve years ago and again five years ago, there were extended periods when the Darfir Republic's currency, the pundra, was weak: its value was unusually low relative to the world's most stable currencies. Both times a weak pundra made Darfir's manufactured products a bargain on world markets, and Darfir's exports were up substantially. Now some politicians are saying that, in order to cause another similarly sized increase in exports, the government should allow the pundra to become weak again.

Which of the following, if true, provides the government with the strongest grounds to doubt that the politicians' recommendation, if followed, will achieve its aim?

(A) Several of the politicians now recommending that the pundra be allowed to become weak made that same recommendation before each of the last two periods of currency weakness.

(B) After several decades of operating well below peak capacity, Darfir's manufacturing sector is now operating at near-peak levels.

(C) The economy of a country experiencing a rise in exports will become healthier only if the country's currency is strong or the rise in exports is significant.

(D) Those countries whose manufactured products compete with Darfir's on the world market all currently have stable currencies.

(E) A sharp improvement in the efficiency of Darfir's manufacturing plants would make Darfir's products a bargain on world markets even without any weakening of  the pundra relative to other currencies.


解析3:

二十年前和五年前,当DR国的货币pundra 贬值时,DR处于扩张期:pundra的价值相对世界最稳定的一些币种异常的低。两个时期pundra的货币贬值使DR的制造业产品在世界市场上很便宜,DR的出口大大上升。现在一些政治家说,为了使得出口有同样体量的增长,政府应该让pundra再次贬值。

目标:使得出口有同样体量的增长。

计划:让pundra再次贬值

逻辑链:之前pundra贬值,导致出口量增长  →现在pundra贬值,同样能导致出口量增长      削弱题,说明计划不能达成目标。

分析:

讨论货币贬值是否实现出口增长的目标,可按类比思维,类比不成立,找不同点。因为以前钱变得不值钱的时候,价格变得便宜,东西价格比较值,所以出口会增加。那么如果这次的计划还是让钱不值钱,出口是不是还会增加呢?我们应该考虑这个时候货物是不是还能有价格优势,或D出口的货物是否还有足够的需求。

(A) 那些现在推荐pundra贬值的政治家在前两次pundra贬值前也做出了同样的推荐 (政客是不是一直这么说的并不是真正影响经济的因素,相反他们的consistency似乎还加强了他们建议的可信度。没有doubt,不选。)

(B) 在多年在峰值下运行,DR的制造业现在已经接近峰值 (生产不可能在增长,没有更多东西用于出口,不同点出现,正确)

(C) 只有在货币坚挺或出口上升很大的情况下,出口增长的国家经济会更健康 (only if 绝对选项,我们不关心经济健不健康,我们只关心政客说这个做法能刺激出口的说法是不是真的。与题目无关,不选)

(D) 那些制造产品在世界市场与DR竞争的国家有稳定货币 (其他国家货币是否稳定跳出范畴,错误)

(E) DR制造厂效率的提高使得DR很便宜,即使pundra相对其他国家货币没有贬值 (DR制造厂改善效率也可以使得货品廉价,进而导致出口量增加,但是它没有讨论货币贬值的计划是否会成功)

30.jpg


例题4:

In parts of South America, vitamin-A deficiency is a serious health problem, especially among children. In one region, agriculturists hope to improve nutrition by encouraging farmers to plant a new variety of sweet potato called SPK004 that is rich in beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A. The plan has good chances of success, since sweet potato is a staple of the region’s diet and agriculture, and the varieties currently grown contain little beta-carotene.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the plan will succeed?

(A) There are other vegetables currently grown in the region that contain more beta-carotene than the currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato do.

(B) The flesh of SPK004 differs from that of the currently cultivated sweet potatoes in color and texture, so traditional foods would look somewhat different when prepared from SPK004.

(C) For successful cultivation of SPK004, a soil significantly richer in nitrogen is needed than is needed for the varieties of sweet potato currently cultivated in the region.

(D) There are no other varieties of sweet potato that are significantly richer in beta-carotene than SPK004 is.

(E) The currently cultivated varieties of sweet potato contain no important nutrients that SPK004 lacks.


解析4:

在南美洲的部分地区,维生素A缺乏是严重的健康问题,尤其是在儿童中。在一个地区,农业家希望通过鼓励农民种植富含β-胡萝卜素的红薯新品种SPK004来改善营养,β-胡萝卜素在体内可以转化为维生素A。农业和目前种植的品种含有少量β-胡萝卜素。

目标:改善缺乏维生素A的状况

计划:种植SPK004红薯

逻辑链:种植SPK004红薯→解决缺乏维生素A的问题   增强题,说明计划能达成目标。 

(A) 在这个地区还生长有其他的蔬菜,这些蔬菜中含有的β-胡萝卜素比现在所种植的红薯 所含有的β-胡萝卜素多 (其他的蔬菜是无关逻辑链,排除)

(B) SPK004的果肉与目前培养的红薯在色泽和质地上不一样,所以如果用SPK004做传统的饭的话,看起来多少有些不同(是否有营养与看起来是否相同毫无关系,排除)

(C) 如果想要成功种植SPK004的话,那么土壤中需要的含氮量要比种植目前的红薯的土壤中的含氮量丰富 (含氮量与逻辑链无关,排除)

(D) 没有其他种类的红薯比SPK004含有更多的β-胡萝卜素 (就算SPK004中β-胡萝卜素是最多的,也不能证明用它就能“improve nutrition”,增强优点无法排除缺点;而且不比SPK004含有的β-胡萝卜素多,但是只要比目前种植的红薯含有的多就可以,所以错误)

(E) SKP004不会缺少普通红薯的重要元素 (言外之意是说SPK004所有方面都比原来的好,除了 β-胡萝卜素比原来的多之外,其他的重要元素也不比其他的少,营养不会缺乏。正确选项)


以上就是GMAT逻辑目标管理题解题技巧以及例题解读啦,祝同学们早日考出理想的成绩!

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