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OG20官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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It is an odd but indisputable fact that the seventeenth-century English women who are generally regarded as among the forerunners of modern feminism are almost all identified with the Royalist side in the conflict between Royalists and Parliamentarians known as the English Civil Wars. Since Royalist ideology is often associated with the radical patriarchalism of seventeenthcentury political theorist Robert Filmer—a patriarchalism that equates family and kingdom and asserts the divinely ordained absolute power of the king and, by analogy, of the male head of the household—historians have been understandably puzzled by the fact that Royalist women wrote the earliest extended criticisms of the absolute subordination of women in marriage and the earliest systematic assertions of women’s rational and moral equality with men. Some historians have questioned the facile equation of Royalist ideology with Filmerian patriarchalism; and indeed, there may have been no consistent differences between Royalists and Parliamentarians on issues of family organization and women’s political rights, but in that case one would expect early feminists to be equally divided between the two sides.

Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish (1626–1673), duchess of Newcastle. Cavendish claimed to be as ambitious as any woman could be, but knowing that as a woman she was excluded from the pursuit of power in the real world, she resolved to be mistress of her own world, the “immaterial world” that any person can create within her own mind—and, as a writer, on paper. In proclaiming what she called her “singularity,” Cavendish insisted that she was a self-sufficient being within her mental empire, the center of her own subjective universe rather than a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet. In justifying this absolute singularity, Cavendish repeatedly invoked the model of the absolute monarch, a figure that became a metaphor for the self-enclosed, autonomous nature of the individual person. Cavendish’s successors among early feminists retained her notion of woman’s sovereign self, but they also sought to break free from the complete political and social isolation that her absolute singularity entailed.

【OG20-P443-564题】

Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 381966y 更新于2019-09-05 23:37:02 感谢由 381966y 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

第六题: Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism? (以下哪一种,如果是真的,最明显地削弱了G对保皇主义与女权主义之间联系的解释) 分析:逻辑题,对于这道题,我们首先是要根据自己的阅读笔记迅速定位到文章中相应的部分,定位到第二段前半部分。随后,我们要找出它的论证过程,比如前提,结论以及举例说明,等等。在这里,前提就是"the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self", 也就是“绝对君权的意识形态为绝对自我的意识形态提供了过渡”。结论就是 "Royalism engendered feminism"。为了说明这个论证,Catherine Gallagher 举了一个 Margaret Cavendish 的例子。要削弱这个论证,我们要么削弱前提,也就是证明“绝对君权的意识形态不会为绝对自我的意识形态提供过渡”,要么削弱这个例子,说明Margaret Cavendish 只是一个特例,并不具有普遍性。有了这样的思考之后,我们再去看选项,看看哪个答案更加符合我们刚刚的推理过程。 A. Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts.(由于他们的特权背景,保皇派女性通常比她们的国会议员受过更好的教育) 错:定位处的论点里跟国会议员支持者没有关系,原文都没提到过,A当中扯上国会议员支持者怎么怎么样,自然无法影响G的解释; B. Filmer himself had read some of Cavendish’s early writings and was highly critical of her ideas.(F自己也读过MC早期的作品,对她的想法非常不满) 错:保皇主义影响了女权主义,这一点不管F赞不赞同MC,都不受影响; C. Cavendish’s views were highly individual and were not shared by the other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works.(MC的观点是高度个人化的并且不被其他保皇派女性所认同她早期的女权主义作品) 正确:MC的作品是在收到绝对君主制的意识形态产生的,如果保皇派女性不认同MC,那就是说MC只是一个特例而已,不具备普遍性,那CG的观点就不能成立。 D. The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women’s political rights.(保皇党和议会意识形态在很大程度上是在家庭组织和妇女政治权利问题上达成一致的) 错:定位处的论点里跟国会议员观点没有关系,D当中扯上国会议员怎么怎么样,自然无法影响G的解释; E. The Royalist side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism.(保皇派包括了一个相当大的少数群体,他们反对F的激进的父权主义倾向) 错:保皇主义影响了女权主义,这一点跟有没有反对F的群体没有直接的关系,不受影响


题目讨论 8条评论)

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    灰灰加油油

    这道题在于对Cavendish的例子或者她的理论来源的理解,女权之所以支持保皇党是因为君权使女性产生了绝对自我,所以他们才会一边儿倒的都支持保皇党,也就是说女性认为即便我要独立,我也要做我的世界的女王(还是要当王)而国会议员的观点削弱了王权,所以他们不支持议员。
    Cavendish算是个极端案例,就是她说出了自己要当自己世界的女主人mistress,所以她就是这种思想的一个代表,而C选项说她是个individual view别人都不和她一样想,所以就削弱了CG的理论。
    0 0 回复 2020-04-02 22:10:37
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    502527uqff

    逻辑题有一个判别方法就是看论证当中有没有提到过选项当中的内容。a,b,d,e所讲的意思,都没有在第二段论证过程中涉及,所以可以排除。
    
    c项是直接attack了例子的客观性。所以削弱。
    0 0 回复 2019-12-13 17:25:58
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    园园爱吃肉

    前面的两篇都各错一个。。这篇连猜带蒙全对了,一脸懵逼
    1 0 回复 2019-12-08 15:02:06
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      奔跑的小猪呀回复园园爱吃肉

      说明爱吃肉有好处

      0 0 回复 2019-12-27 16:17:04

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    159144t

    文章分析:
    
    第一段提出一个奇怪的现象,说到17世纪女权主义者支持保皇派不支持国会议员。接着解释为什么奇怪,因为保皇派是支持F的父权主义的,女权主义者怎么会支持一个支持父权主义的派别呢?有历史学家就开始质疑说保皇派其实是不支持F的父权主义的,但是任然无法解释为何女权主义一边倒的支持保皇派。
    
    
    
    第二段提出CG的解释,说是保皇派的绝对君主制衍生出了女权主义者的绝对自我。并用MC作为例子来证明。
    
    
    
    
    
    第一题:
    
    The author of the passage refers to Robert Filmer in highlight text primarily in order to(Line is marked with ♦)(这篇文章的作者提到Robert Filmer(高亮文本)主要是为了)
    
    分析:先看到题干中最后的in order to可以先判断出来是目的题,我们总在强调目的题本质考察的是句内句间关系。那么我们回归到句内句间关系上。题目问的RF是在文章第二句。通过我们之前对文章的分析,我们知道第二句的功能是在解释为什么第一句描述的现象是odd的。
    
    
    
    A. show that Royalist ideology was somewhat more radical than historians appear to realize(证明保皇派的意识形态比历史学家所意识到的要激进得多)
    
    错:这里没有跟历史学家比,无中生有;
    
    
    
    B. qualify the claim that patriarchalism formed the basis of Royalist ideology(证明了父权制是保皇派意识形态的基础)
    
    错:这句话提到了保皇派的意识形态是父权制,但是没有在证明这一点。
    
    
    
    C. question the view that most early feminists were associated with the Royalist faction(质疑大多数早期的女权主义者与保皇派有联系的观点)
    
    错:定位句没有在质疑什么。
    
    
    
    D. highlight an apparent tension between Royalist ideology and the ideas of early
    feminists(强调了保皇派意识形态和早期女权主义者的观点之间的紧张关系)
    
    正确:定位句正是通过强调保皇派意识形态和早期女权主义者的观点之间的紧张关系,才解释了为什么第一句说女权主义者支持保皇派是很odd的。
    
    
    
    E. argue that Royalist held conflicting opinions on issues of family organization and women’s political rights(认为保皇党在家庭组织和妇女政治权利问题上持有不同意见)
    
    错:没有说到保皇派持有不同的意见。
    
    
    
    
    
    第二题:
    
    The passage suggests which of the following about the seventeenth-century English women mentioned in highlight text?(Line is marked with ♦) (这篇文章暗示了以下哪个关于在文章中高亮处标出的17世纪英国女性的内容是正确的)
    
    分析:细节题。我们总在强调细节题的本质就是压缩定位范围。通过定位,我们发现本题问的English women 就是那群feminism的forerunner。
    
    
    
    A. Their status as forerunners of modern feminism is not entirely justified.(他们作为现代女性主义的先驱的地位并不是完全公正的)
    
    错:文中第一段有说17世纪的英国女性通常被认为是现代女权主义的先驱,但没有说这样的地方不公正。
    
    
    
    B. They did not openly challenge the radical patriarchalism of Royalist Filmerian ideology.(他们没有公开挑战保皇派的激进的父权主义)
    
    错:文中说到这些女性是支持保皇派的,这个选项不合理。
    
    
    
    C. Cavendish was the first among these women to criticize women’s subordination in marriage and assert women’s equality with men.(C是这些女性中第一个批评女性在婚姻中的从属地位,并主张女性与男性平等)
    
    错:没有说到她是不是第一个。
    
    
    
    D. Their views on family organization and women’s political rights were diametrically opposed to those of both Royalist Parliamentarian ideology.(他们对家庭组织和妇女政治权利的看法与保皇派议员的意识形态截然相反)
    
    错:文章有说到女权主义者与保皇派的相似性(在第二段说君主主义催生了( engendered )女权主义展开的内容),但并没有提到有截然相反的地方。
    
    
    
    E. Historians would be less puzzled if more of them were identified with the
    Parliamentarian side in the English Civil Wars.(如果在英国内战中有更多的英国女性是站在国会议员这一边的,历史学家们就不会那么困惑了)
    
    正确:文章中第二句话说了保皇派是福权主义,第三句话又说了保皇派和国会议员在家庭组织和妇女政治权利问题上可能没有一致的区别,既然都支持父权主义,女权主义为何还要一边倒支持保皇派,这是历史学家的困惑所在,因此,E选项的假设成立。
    
    
    
    
    
    第三题:
    
    The passage suggests that Margaret Cavendish’s decision to become an author was motivated, at least in part, by a desire to(这篇文章表明,MC决定成为一名作家的决定的动机,至少在某种程度上是来自于对什么的渴望。)
    
    分析:文中有解释她想成为作家的原因,定位到第二段第三句她知道在现实世界中作为一个女人的她是被排除在权力追求之外的,她决心成为她自己的世界中的女主人, 一个“非物质世界”,一个任何人都可以在其脑海中创建的世界——她要成为作为一个作家,在纸上创建这个世界。简单来说是因为现实满足不了她追求权力的野心,然后她选择自己创造一个能满足这一野心的世界(即文字世界),所以才想要成为作家。我们看哪个选项符合这个意思。
    
    
    
    A. justify her support for the Royalist cause(证明她支持保皇主义事业)
    
    错:不符合
    
    
    
    B. encourage her readers to work toward eradicating Filmerian patriarchalism(鼓励她的读者致力于根除电影中)
    
    错:不符合
    
    
    
    C. persuade other women to break free
    from their political and social isolation(说服其他妇女摆脱政治和社会孤立)不符合
    
    
    
    D. analyze the causes for women’s
    exclusion from the pursuit of power(分析妇女被排除在追求权力之外的原因)不符合
    
    
    
    E. create a world over which she could
    exercise total control(创造一个她可以完全控制的世界)正确:符合
    
    
    
    
    
    第四题:
    
    The phrase “a satellite orbiting a dominant male planet” in highlight text refers most directly to(在突出文本中,“围绕着一个占主导地位的男性星球运行的卫星”这个短语最直接地指向)
    
    分析:定位处的rather than表明高亮部分的内容和rather than前面的内容是相反的,前面内容和是说成为她自己主观宇宙的中心,后面是说而不是围绕着一个占主导地位的男性星球的卫星,这是一个比喻,把行星和恒星的从属地位,比喻成当时女性和男性的从属地位。
    
    
    
    A. Cavendish’s concept that each woman is a sovereign self(MC的每个女人都是至高无上的自我的这一概念)
    
    错:行星和恒星的关系指的不是一个概念。
    
    
    
    B. the complete political and social isolation of absolute singularity(绝对奇点的完全的政治和社会孤立)
    
    错:行星和恒星的关系指的不是一个isolation。
    
    
    
    C. the immaterial world that a writer can create on paper(一个作家可以在纸上创作的非物质世界)
    
    错:行星和恒星的关系指的不是一个世界。
    
    
    
    D. the absolute subordination of women in a patriarchal society(在父权社会中女性的绝对从属地位)正确,符合我们的分析。
    
    
    
    E. the metaphorical figure of the absolute monarch(绝对君主的比喻形象)
    
    错:行星和恒星的关系指的不是君主形象。
    
    
    
    
    
    第五题:
    
    The primary purpose of the passage is to (这篇文章的主要目的是)
    
    分析:通过对文章脉络的梳理,这篇文章第一段提出一个困惑,第二段对这一困惑进行解释。
    
    
    
    A. trace the historical roots of a modern sociopolitical movement(追溯现代社会政治运动的历史根源)
    
    错:没有在追溯什么;
    
    
    
    B. present one scholar’s explanation for a puzzling historical phenomenon(一位学者对一种令人费解的历史现象的解释)
    
    正确
    
    
    
    C. contrast two interpretations of the ideological origins of a political conflict(对比两种对政治冲突的意识形态起源的解释)
    
    错:没有在对比什么;
    
    
    
    D. establish a link between the ideology of an influential political theorist and that of a notoriously eccentric writer(在一个有影响力的政治理论家的意识形态和一个有名的(在当时)反常态的作家之间建立联系)
    
    错:没有在建立联系;
    
    
    
    E. call attention to some points of agreement between opposing sides in an ideological debate(在一场意识形态辩论中,对于对立双方达成的一些共识引起一些注意)
    
    错:没有在引起注意;
    
    
    
    
    
    第六题:
    
    Which of the following, if true, would most clearly undermine Gallagher’s explanation of the link between Royalism and feminism? (以下哪一种,如果是真的,最明显地削弱了G对保皇主义与女权主义之间联系的解释)
    
    分析:逻辑题,对于这道题,我们首先是要根据自己的阅读笔记迅速定位到文章中相应的部分,定位到第二段前半部分。随后,我们要找出它的论证过程,比如前提,结论以及举例说明,等等。在这里,前提就是"the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self", 也就是“绝对君权的意识形态为绝对自我的意识形态提供了过渡”。结论就是 "Royalism engendered feminism"。为了说明这个论证,Catherine
    Gallagher 举了一个 Margaret Cavendish 的例子。要削弱这个论证,我们要么削弱前提,也就是证明“绝对君权的意识形态不会为绝对自我的意识形态提供过渡”,要么削弱这个例子,说明Margaret Cavendish 只是一个特例,并不具有普遍性。有了这样的思考之后,我们再去看选项,看看哪个答案更加符合我们刚刚的推理过程。
    
    
    
    A. Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts.(由于他们的特权背景,保皇派女性通常比她们的国会议员受过更好的教育)
    
    错:定位处的论点里跟国会议员支持者没有关系,原文都没提到过,A当中扯上国会议员支持者怎么怎么样,自然无法影响G的解释;
    
    
    
    B. Filmer himself had read some of Cavendish’s early writings and was highly critical of her ideas.(F自己也读过MC早期的作品,对她的想法非常不满)
    
    错:保皇主义影响了女权主义,这一点不管F赞不赞同MC,都不受影响;
    
    
    
    C. Cavendish’s views were highly individual and were not shared by the other
    Royalist women who wrote early feminist works.(MC的观点是高度个人化的并且不被其他保皇派女性所认同她早期的女权主义作品)
    
    正确:MC的作品是在收到绝对君主制的意识形态产生的,如果保皇派女性不认同MC,那就是说MC只是一个特例而已,不具备普遍性,那CG的观点就不能成立。
    
    
    
    D. The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women’s political rights.(保皇党和议会意识形态在很大程度上是在家庭组织和妇女政治权利问题上达成一致的)
    
    错:定位处的论点里跟国会议员观点没有关系,D当中扯上国会议员怎么怎么样,自然无法影响G的解释;
    
    
    
    E. The Royalist side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism.(保皇派包括了一个相当大的少数群体,他们反对F的激进的父权主义倾向)
    
    错:保皇主义影响了女权主义,这一点跟有没有反对F的群体没有直接的关系,不受影响;
    1 0 回复 2019-08-17 19:07:26
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    无风险套利猫

    为什么B不对?
    0 0 回复 2019-07-08 19:31:40
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      171533exp回复无风险套利猫

      文中第一段已经说过,不能facile equate 那个人的观点和整个R党的观点。所以后面关于他个人的观点都不能代表整个党派。

      0 0 回复 2019-12-12 10:47:42

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    ZoeyYoung

    C. C是一个特例,没有代表性,所以削弱了C的解释
    D. 就算Royalist和Parliamentarian ideologies高度一致,这不能推翻CG关于Royalism and feminism的推论,因为在他的论述中,并没有提到Parliament的想法
    0 0 回复 2018-09-07 10:03:45
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    Joyce L

    Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. 
    She cites the example of the notoriously eccentric author Margaret Cavendish.
    
    Royalism---absolute monarchy---feminism 
    
    削弱:Cavendish是一个特例,没有代表性
    0 0 回复 2018-06-02 17:05:17
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    感觉自己萌萌哒

    定位:Catherine Gallagher argues that Royalism engendered feminism because the ideology of absolute monarchy provided a transition to an ideology of the absolute self. CG认为他们之间的联系是:Royalism可以产生feminism,这个原因是因为 monarchy可以促进向自我意识形态的过渡。
    如果要削弱这个联系,就要从得到这个关系的原因上入手,也就是削弱 monarchy对自我意识形态的过渡。
    A Because of their privileged backgrounds, Royalist women were generally better educated than were their Parliamentarian counterparts.
    better educated 原文中没有这个背景,无法推断
    B Filmer himself had read some of Cavendish’s early writings and was highly critical of her ideas.
    无涉及是否F是否读过Cavendish’s early writings 
    C Cavendish’s views were highly individual and were not shared by the other Royalist women who wrote early feminist works.
    G用C的例子去说明royalist是怎样产生feminist,如果Royalist women 都不赞成C的观点,那么这个结论就不会成立。符合题意
    D The Royalist and Parliamentarian ideologies were largely in agreement on issues of family organization and women’s political rights.
    第一段的最后,如果Royalist and Parliamentarian的他们之间一致的话,feminist就会equally divided between the two sides。但是事实不是这样的。所以这个选项是与原文相反的
    E The Royalist side included a sizable minority faction that was opposed to the more radical tendencies of Filmerian patriarchalism.    题干无关
    0 0 回复 2015-10-27 13:59:33
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