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阅读RC-15423 (第1/3题) Time Cost
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Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of calcium phosphate) of tiny marine animals that probably appeared about 520million years ago, were once among the most controversial of fossils. Both the nature of the organism to which the remains belonged and the function of there remains were unknown. However,since the 1981 discovery of fossils preserving not just the phosphatic elements but also other remains of the tiny soft-bodied animals (also called conodonts) that bore them, scientists' reconstructions of the animals' anatomy have had important implications for hypotheses concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton.

The vertebrate skeleton had traditionally been regarded as a defensive development, champions of this view postulating that it was only with the much later evolution of jaws that vertebrates became predators. The first vertebrates,which were soft-bodied, would have been easy prey for numerous invertebrate carnivores, especially if these early vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders. Thus, traditionalists argued, these animals developed coverings of bony scales or plates, and teeth were secondary features, adapted from the protective bony scales. Indeed, externa! skeletons of this type are common among the well-known fossils of ostracoderms, jawless vertebrates that existed from approximately 500 to 400 million years ago.However,other paleontologists argued that many of the definitive characteristics of vertebrates, such as paired eyes and muscular and skeletal adaptations for active life, would not have evolved unless the first vertebrates were predatory. Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators.

The stiffening notochord along the back of the body, V-shaped muscle blocks along the sides, and posterior tail fins help to identify conodonts as among the most primitive of vertebrates. The lack of any mineralized structures apart from the elements in the mouth indicates that conodonts were moreprimitive than the armored jawless fishes such as the ostracoderms. It now appears that the hard parts that first evolved in the mouth of an animal improved its efficiency as a predator, and that aggression rather than protection was the driving force behind the origin of the vertebrate skeleton.

【OG20-P450-580题】

According to the passage, the anatomical evidence provided by the preserved soft bodies of conodonts led scientists to conclude that

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 百香果蜂蜜茶 更新于2017-08-10 14:42:33 感谢由 百香果蜂蜜茶 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

这一题让我们基于文章当中的信息来给定一个合理的推断,所以首先要找到文章当中所出现的所有关于Conodont的信息,然后再根据每个答案当中出现的名词 回到原文中进行定位,最后看这些名词与conodon之间的关系。

A选项(错)文章已经很清晰的表明 conodon不是“invertebrate”而是“vertebrate”

B选项(错)原文提到的原句是:B选项提及的内容在第二段有提到,不过立马被第三段给否定了“Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators”

C选项(错) 最后一段已经说了很明显了 conodon 是predator 而不是 feeder

D选项(对) 请定位第三段, 合理的支撑

E选项(错)从文章的结尾可以看出, 最后作者一开始被提出来的结论被推翻了!


题目讨论 (10条评论)

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    637298zxft

    上两篇全对 这篇全错 看不懂
    0 0 回复 2022-06-12 14:53:22
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    180687pkqh

    这篇文章用倒叙的方法
    1. 通过1981重大发现确定development of the Vertebrate skeleton。(在这之前已有不同的讨论,这个发现证明了某个讨论方向。)
    2. 阐述1981之前的2个对立观点(传统观点-后有teeth、其他观点-先有teeth)
    3. 重新回到1981的发现,该发现中的解构证明了其他观点-先有teeth。
    
    第一段
    介绍C
    1981发现-科学家解构对development of the Vertebrate skeleton有重要指示
    
    第二段
    1. Traditionally(正方)
    V-defensive-先有coverings of bony scales or plates后teeth
    
    2. other(反方)
    V-predatory(predator)-先有teeth后external armor
    
    第三段
    3个anatomical structure - C - most primitive of V
    mineralized structure(teeth) - C - more primitive than O
    hard parts(teeth) - predator (driving force: aggression > protection)
    0 0 回复 2022-04-01 17:23:46
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    JackMousa

    拿OGonline帮我随机选题,一来就选这么暴力的一篇,泪目
    0 1 回复 2022-03-12 22:34:59
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    冲他丫的

    这篇完全看不进去nm
    3 0 回复 2021-12-06 18:50:56
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    201125nn

    Conodonts分析Vertebrate
    这篇文章生词很多(虽然都背过,但是一下子放在一起反应不过来各种元素之间的关系),但细看几次层次还是比较明显的。有明显的层次提示词,比如traditionally认为是怎样,however other paleontologists认为是怎样,现在看上去是怎样。
    Conodonts, the spiky phosphatic remains (bones and teeth composed of calcium phosphate) of tiny marine animals that probably appeared about 520million years ago, were once among the most controversial of fossils. Both the nature of the organism to which the remains belonged and the function of there remains were unknown. However,since the 1981 discovery of fossils preserving not just the phosphatic elements but also other remains of the tiny soft-bodied animals (also called conodonts) that bore(持有) them, scientists' reconstructions of the animals' anatomy have had important implications for hypotheses concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton.
    第一段大概说1981年发现conodonts是一种化石,可以分析出vertebrate的发展。
    The vertebrate skeleton had traditionally been regarded as a defensive development, champions(拥护) of this view postulating(假定) that it was only with the much later evolution of jaws that vertebrates became predators. The first vertebrates,which were soft-bodied, would have been easy prey for numerous invertebrate carnivores, especially if these early vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders. Thus, traditionalists argued, these animals developed coverings of bony scales or plates, and teeth were secondary features, adapted from the protective bony scales. Indeed, externa! skeletons of this type are common among the well-known fossils of ostracoderms, jawless vertebrates that existed from approximately 500 to 400 million years ago.
    第二段第一层,传统主义者认为vertebrate一开始是被捕猎的,牙齿后于外壳发育。
    However,other paleontologists argued that many of the definitive characteristics of vertebrates, such as paired eyes and muscular and skeletal adaptations for active life, would not have evolved unless the first vertebrates were predatory. Teeth were more primitive than external armor according to this view, and the earliest vertebrates were predators.
    第二段第三层,其他的考古学家认为vertebrate是捕猎者,牙齿最先发育,然后才是外壳。
    The stiffening notochord along the back of the body, V-shaped muscle blocks along the sides, and posterior tail fins help to identify conodonts as among the most primitive of vertebrates. The lack of any mineralized structures apart from the elements in the mouth indicates that conodonts were more primitive than the armored jawless fishes such as the ostracoderms. It now appears that the hard parts that first evolved in the mouth of an animal improved its efficiency as a predator, and that aggression rather than protection was the driving force behind the origin of the vertebrate skeleton.
    最后一段说conodonts比os更原始,现在看来vertebrate是捕猎者。
    1 0 回复 2021-12-03 10:54:24
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    如果有时间的话我也能做对

    The stiffening notochord软脊椎的变硬 along the back of the body, V-shaped muscle blocks along the sides, and posterior tail fins-这一堆也就是解刨学证据 help to identify (对应conclude)conodonts as among the most primitive of vertebrates. The lack of any mineralized structures apart from the elements in the mouth ( teeth appeared嘴里的元素)indicates that conodonts were (!重点)more primitive than( D选项earlier than) the armored jawless fishes (也就是 armored vertebrates)such as the ostracoderms。所以D是文章结论句的精华提取。
    0 0 回复 2021-08-01 16:02:11
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    弹钢琴的小胖手

    这片文章精读了一遍才只对了1道题,恐怖蒙着做题正确率没准都比这个高吧
    3 0 回复 2021-07-08 15:22:54
    • 评论用户头像

      如果有时间的话我也能做对回复弹钢琴的小胖手

      事实证明你经常都是对的

      0 0 回复 2021-08-01 16:02:07

    • 评论用户头像

      samelany回复弹钢琴的小胖手

      我一题都没对。。

      0 0 回复 2021-10-04 14:35:59

    • 评论用户头像

      冲他丫的回复弹钢琴的小胖手

      呜呜呜呜好强 我就是sb nm

      0 0 回复 2021-12-06 18:51:37

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    ycg200650

    看你们的评论是我做题快乐的源泉
    4 0 回复 2021-06-26 11:23:05
    • 评论用户头像

      冲他丫的回复ycg200650

      网友讲话就是好笑

      0 0 回复 2021-12-06 18:51:59

    • 评论用户头像

      冲他丫的回复ycg200650

      多做一篇阅读 就更加怀疑自己英语能力,,,,算了 上次560 够我反思自己了

      1 0 回复 2021-12-06 18:52:40

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    507688pt

    不认识的单词一堆一堆的。。。
    4 1 回复 2021-03-29 22:36:53
    • 评论用户头像

      冲他丫的回复507688pt

      根本nm读不进去 读一会 跑一会神 我写的结构 还不如不写 全nm蒙的

      0 1 回复 2021-12-06 18:53:40

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      leon小恶魔回复 507688pt

      而且有种感觉:做题的单词好多都不认识,搜单词意思的时候又感觉这个单词好像有读过

      0 0 回复 2022-05-09 12:40:45

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    DamienExam

    彻底干懵了
    3 0 回复 2021-02-14 16:33:04
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