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OG18官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P452-583题】

The primary purpose of the passage is to

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该题目由网友wqbWR8提供。更多GMAT题目请
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当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:10:37 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
主题题,本文论述了JC关于社会构建论的立场
A错误,文章未提及技术变化的优势
B错误,telephone exchange只是文章的一个细节
C正确,符合文章意思
D错误,此处的technological determinism不对
E错误,文章未提及should be studied in real situations

题目讨论 9条评论)

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    xxxxiao

    1-JC’s study is a solid contribution to a debate of technological determinism and social constructivism
    
    2- Braverman's analysis is stated as a represent of constructivism, which JC held opposite position
    
    3- The main content of the constructivist
    
    4- JC refutes the extremes of the constructivists, and his arguments challenging social constructivism are then described
    
    
    A 文章并未提及对technological change的态度,但是对于其变化在社会中的作用很关注
    
    B 文章提到telephone exchange workers 只是作为一个例子帮助加深读者对debate的理解
    
    C 正确,文章就是阐述JC的观点如何challenge 了constructivism
    
    D JC的观点是对constructivism的challenge, 对technological determinism 是支持态度
    
    E 错。
    
    obscure 模糊,混淆
    
    对于debate的两方面  technological determinism 和 social constructivism  不要被长单词绕晕。后面提到constructivist就是social这边的观点。determinism是technological的观点。
    0 0 回复 2019-12-27 16:33:50
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    432442ba

    一定要注意,这篇文章中,SC的观点,对于TD观点的错误代表和误读只会影响人们对科技,对TD观点的理解,所以JC这个人觉得SC一些极端的观点不好想要为TD洗白。但两方辩论不会影响现代化进程和科技进步的,一帮学者也没那么大能耐。
    0 0 回复 2019-10-12 16:36:04
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    浪逐曲奇

    记得封闭班老师讲过这道题 JC是持一个比较中立的观点,没说他支持TD还是SC,其实他只是想纠正SC里一些比较极端的观点。
    0 0 回复 2019-08-14 22:55:02
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    Joyce L

    全文是反对social constructivism支持technological determinism,其实一开始还好,读到Braverman那里开始乱了,漏掉了obscured这一个转折关键词,以为Braverman是支持Clark但读着读着又发现不是,转而怀疑自己是不是理解错了Clark的意思
    0 0 回复 2019-07-28 00:42:39
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    饮屠苏

    翻译成中文都看不懂是啥意思……
    0 0 回复 2019-03-15 15:22:49
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      起雾了起雾了回复饮屠苏

      +1

      0 0 回复 2019-07-31 14:15:41

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      Mona0102回复饮屠苏

      我觉得这种题目最重要的不是读懂文章具体说了什么,而是各种人物和观点之间的关系

      2 0 回复 2019-08-06 18:33:52

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      210回复 Mona0102

      是的

      0 0 回复 2019-09-24 15:54:43

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    Mathildawgw

    第一段说JC对电话交换现代化对交换维护工作和工人的影响的研究和一个辩论有关。第二段说了JC是支持TD主义的,认为科技对工作技巧和组织、社会管理组织有决定性作用。B支持SC主义,这个主意强调机器是反映社会选择的,也就是说是社会选择决定了机器,科技系统从属于管理者操控劳动的欲望,科技变化是利益群体(机器设计和布局和自己兴趣融合)的协商结果。第三段说SC歪曲了TD,举了个例子,说SC的人认为TD是应该会认为机器施加了合适的社会秩序,SC的另一种选择是将技术视为存在于社会外部,能够直接影响技能和工作组织。第四段说JC的反驳,理论方面他定义技术是社会和科技变量的关系,避免技术被狭隘地看做冷冰冰的机器。经验层面他展示了那什么的变化是怎么改变了工作任务技巧等等方面。JC把一些改变归于管理和劳动协会协商的特定方式,其他改变是来源于技术本身。
    2 0 回复 2018-10-04 11:04:46
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    genkirocket

    Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.
    a solid contribution to a debate对应C中a successful challenge;定位在最后一段段首Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments.   refutes可与challenge对应
    0 0 回复 2018-08-19 18:28:46
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    must720

    有人来解答一下A吗?A说支持:对科技变化持有的积极态度。文章不就是说JC这个人认为科技决定了社会很多东西,对科技变化持积极态度吗?然后作者字里行间都在说JC的观点挺好的。  不懂解析说的,而且A也没说什么技术变化优势啊,positive说的不是态度吗?
    0 0 回复 2018-01-05 00:21:34
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      hecmelo回复must720

      这篇文章是TD反驳SC,因为SC曲解TD的观点,sc认为TD派倡导的技术决定论中技术就是冷冰冰的,技术是在社会之外的,由利益追逐决定,控制工人的技术,但TD就说不是这样哒~blablabla JC就是TD派的。 但是JC写这篇文章主要是来澄清反驳大家的曲解,而不是在这里罗列技术的优点,说技术有多好多好,大家一起来倡导技术发展,不是这样滴

      0 0 回复 2018-01-05 02:21:51

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      Yunaaa回复must720

      0 0 回复 2019-03-13 21:00:16

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      浪逐曲奇回复must720

      原文是讨论tech change在society中的角色作用,不是探讨tech change本身

      0 0 回复 2019-08-14 22:53:21

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    xiaoyi

    advocate a more positive attitude toward the constructivist view of technological change ---correct
    0 0 回复 2017-08-31 17:50:05
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