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OG18官方指南,建议同学们刷3遍。第一遍做题了解题型和考点,第二遍精刷,第三遍集中解决疑难问题。建议考生第一遍刷题采用官方正版纸质书籍,若遇到疑难问题,欢迎在此专区查阅解析,提供解析,参与题目讨论,与所有考生一起解决疑难问题。
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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"

【OG20-P452-585题】

Which of the following most accurately describes Clark’s opinion of Braverman’s position?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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该题目由网友D72T56oC提供。更多GMAT题目请
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当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:10:06 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
B并不非常看重技术所有可能带来的影响力,这一点与JC的立场相反
A错误,文中未提及“JC尊重B观点的广泛普遍性”
B正确,该选项体现了JC与B观点的冲突
C错误,文章没有提及workers affected
D错误,文中未提及“JC担心新技术的实施会受阻”
E错误,文中未提及“JC对...表示同情”

题目讨论 5条评论)

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    Joyce L

    obscured 使模糊,使费解
    0 0 回复 2019-07-27 23:24:48
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    冲鸭750

    锁定“manger's deire”--"manger"

    0 0 回复 2019-01-30 14:47:27
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    ZoeyYoung

    A.错。是因为Clark虽然是赞同manangement and labor union negotiated the introduction of the technology,但是他不赞同Braverman的观点‘即management是全部’
    0 0 回复 2018-09-06 20:08:05
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    must720

    D到底哪里不对呢?Braver不是就是不重视科技吗?他们这种态度确实是潜在的影响新科技的实施啊
    0 0 回复 2018-01-05 01:02:11
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    河边柳青青

    Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis
    Clark前面说的好处都被B支持的理论給遮掩了
    0 0 回复 2017-10-23 09:58:05
    • 评论用户头像

      liao8520回复河边柳青青

      mark下

      0 0 回复 2018-06-03 14:19:34

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