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Japanese firms have achieved the highest levels of manufacturing efficiency in the world automobile industry. Some observers of Japan have assumed that Japanese firms use the same manufacturing equipment and techniques as United States firms but have benefited from the unique characteristics of Japanese employees and the Japanese culture. However, if this were true, then one would expect Japanese auto plants in the United States to perform no better than factories run by United States companies. This is not the case, Japanese-run automobile plants located in the United States and staffed by local workers have demonstrated higher levels of productivity when compared with factories owned by United States companies.

Other observers link high Japanese productivity to higher levels of capital investment per worker. But a historical perspective leads to a different conclusion. When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties, capital investment per employee was comparable to that of United States firms. Furthermore, by the late seventies, the amount of fixed assets required to produce one vehicle was roughly equivalent in Japan and in the United States. Since capital investment was not higher in Japan, it had to be other factors that led to higher productivity. A more fruitful explanation may lie with Japanese production techniques. Japanese automobile producers did not simply implement conventional processes more effectively: they made critical changes in United States procedures. For instance, the mass-production philosophy of United States automakers encouraged the production of huge lots of cars in order to utilize fully expensive, component-specific equipment and to occupy fully workers who have been trained to execute one operation efficiently. Japanese automakers chose to make small-lot production feasible by introducing several departures from United States practices, including the use of flexible equipment that could be altered easily to do several different production tasks and the training of workers in multiple jobs.

Automakers could schedule the production of different components or models on single machines, thereby eliminating the need to store the buffer stocks of extra components that result when specialized equipment and workers are kept constantly active.

Which of the following statements concerning the productivity levels of automakers can be inferred from the passage?

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当前版本由 jassicacanidy 更新于2018-11-12 11:02:08 感谢由 jassicacanidy 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties表明在mid sixties(1965)日本人还没有超越美国人,也就是说A选项的1960年前美国人比日本人高效是对的


题目讨论 (15条评论)

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    爱琴海底火山

    When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties, capital investment per employee was comparable to that of United States firms.
    20世纪60年代中期,两家最大的日本汽车制造商开始与美国的生产效率并驾齐驱,而后来则为美国生产效率的两倍,而每位员工计算的资金投入却与美国不相上下。
    0 0 回复 2022-10-20 21:42:46
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    419716gjbb

    什么意思啊??
    When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties, capital investment per employee was comparable to that of United States firms. 60年代中期,当日本两大汽车制造商势均力敌,然后将美国的生产率水平翻了一番时??怎么就推出在这之前日本人还没有超越美国人,
    
    这个doubled是理解成因为两个top Japanese automobile makers matched 了所以才将美国的生产率水平翻一倍吗
    0 0 回复 2022-01-07 22:29:20
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    186280ax

    还是没太理解,在这个时点美国是超过日本的能得出在这个时点之前美国一直比日本高吗,不会有波动吗?
    0 0 回复 2021-09-26 00:36:26
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    879036ge

    mid-sixties
    0 0 回复 2020-07-16 16:48:44
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    200712nbysj

    "When the two top Japanese automobile makers MATCHED and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties..." Matched in mid 60s, meaning Japanese production level was lower (aka "exceeded by") US production level prior to 60s.
    0 0 回复 2019-12-08 01:13:01
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    EvaBabe

    When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties
    
    说明mid-60年代,Jap都还没有match US。 那么就是US比Jap厉害了。 所以是 exceeded by US...
    0 0 回复 2019-08-19 23:02:47
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    lgdsdx

    "When the two top Japanese automobile makers MATCHED and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties..."
    Matched in mid 60s, meaning Japanese production level was lower (aka "exceeded by") US production level prior to 60s.
    0 0 回复 2019-07-14 10:14:52
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      emoji呀回复lgdsdx

      为什么只说了two Japanese automobiletop makers不能代表日本全国水平吧

      0 0 回复 2019-08-11 17:49:13

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      Estherzhu回复lgdsdx

      题目和原文的词都没换吧

      0 0 回复 2019-08-18 17:49:44

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      一个平平无奇的刷G人回复lgdsdx

      说的都是top auto makers

      0 0 回复 2020-08-14 18:09:49

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    ottoyean

    这个词没理解
    0 0 回复 2019-06-18 17:28:43
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    皮诺草的脑婆

    我找了半天都没有找到1960.。。。
    1 0 回复 2019-06-07 18:41:27
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    MissLynne

    这也太牵强了吧 double了不一定之前不如它高有可能是只高了20%呢 非要200%吗?
    0 0 回复 2019-03-07 17:02:30
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    小周700冲冲冲

    mid -sixties算priorto 60s ??
    0 0 回复 2018-12-26 20:18:48
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      Dian回复小周700冲冲冲

      应该是在mid-sixties后日本才超美国 prior to60s 是美国超日本(Japanese were exceeded by the US——是被动,被超越的意思) 我是这么理解的

      0 0 回复 2019-04-14 23:58:22

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    6669

    mid-sixties  是六十年代中旬吗?,找了好久没找到时间
    0 0 回复 2018-12-04 00:22:05
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    开灰机的舒克

    When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties,本句话说明了mid-sixties日本的productivity才追上美国之后才2倍于老美
    0 0 回复 2018-08-30 15:32:37
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    上700顶点

    match 比得上,言外之意1965之前日本都没有美国厉害
    1 0 回复 2018-05-12 18:14:42
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    Admit it

    第二段第二句
    When the two top Japanese automobile makers matched and then doubled United States productivity levels in the mid-sixties,
    来自音频
    0 0 回复 2018-05-05 15:17:54
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