In Forces of Production, David Noble examines the transformation of the machine-tool industry as the industry moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation. Noble writes from a Marxist perspective, and his central argument is that management, in its decisions to automate, conspired against labor: the power that the skilled machinists wielded in the industry was intolerable to management. Noble fails to substantiate this claim, although his argument is impressive when he applies the Marxist concept of “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled labor—to the automation of the machine-tool industry. In automating, the industry moved to computer-based, digitized “numerical-control” (N/C) technology, rather than to artisan-generated “record-playback” (R/P) technology.Although both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor, Noble clearly prefers R/P, with its inherent acknowledgment of workers’ skills: unlike N/C, its programs were produced not by engineers at their computers, but by skilled machinists, who recorded their own movements to “teach” machines to duplicate those movements. However, Noble’s only evidence of conspiracy is that, although the two approaches were roughly equal in technical merit, management chose N/C. From this he concludes that automation is undertaken not because efficiency demands it or scientific advances allow it, but because it is a tool in the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor.
According to information in the passage, the term “de-skilling” refers to the
when he applies the Marxist concept of “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled labor—to the automation of the machine-tool industry.定位到这里，很明显，de-skilling就是指的技术替代人。A，是人替代人；B，正确；C/D，未提及“替代”这一关键词；E是迷惑选项，将技术工人排除在新自动化技术的研发之外，这没有表明替代。
E是需要参与到"the development of automated technology"的人，即，去开发自动化系统的人，这部分人按照下文来说要么是computer engineers或者是skilled machinists，是不可能被机器替代的；会被机器替代的是普通劳工。就像富土康再先进也只能淘汰操作工临时工不可能淘汰高级机械师和工程师。E选项的意思错了和用词没关系。
0 0 回复 2020-08-14 19:10:02
我也选了E，只看紧跟的 the use of tech to replace skilled labor的话，可能不是很清晰地区分 replace和exclude的区别。再往下看although both reduced the reliance on skilled labor… 都是减少对skilled labor的依赖
0 0 回复 2019-08-08 17:27:13
文中"de-skilling"后面紧跟的插入语为“-the use of technology to replace skilled labor-”