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阅读RC-16065 (第4/4题) Time Cost00:00
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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons—quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe: neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge, and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe.

But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts so infrequently with other matter? Twenty-five years passed between Pauli’s hypothesis that the neutrino existed and its actual detection: since then virtually all research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially in large particle accelerators and studied under neutrino microscopes. But a neutrino telescope, capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to construct. No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is extremely massive, because great mass is synonymous with huge numbers of nucleons (neutrons and protons), and the more massive the detector, the greater the probability of one of its nucleon’s reacting with a neutrino. In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently shielded from the interfering effects of other particles.

Fortunately, a group of astrophysicists has proposed a means of detecting cosmic neutrinos by harnessing the mass of the ocean. Named DUMAND, for Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector, the project calls for placing an array of light sensors at a depth of five kilometers under the ocean surface. The detecting medium is the seawater itself: when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors. The five kilometers of seawater above the sensors will shield them from the interfering effects of other high-energy particles raining down through the atmosphere.

The strongest motivation for the DUMAND project is that it will exploit an important source of information about the universe. The extension of astronomy from visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises.

According to the passage, the interaction of a neutrino with other matter can produce

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题目讨论 (6条评论)

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    167169vazk

    when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors.
    0 0 回复 2021-08-05 08:56:22
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    chicaicai

    定位到这句相对容易,“and the more massive the detector, the greater the probability of one of its nucleon’s reacting with a neutrino. In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently”然后这段说了要尽力避免但是并没有提及interaction会发生什么和原因,那么后面一定有。后推下一段a group 找到了避免的方法,怎么避免的呢?这里 “when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors. ”找到了发生的问题,然后解决靠The five kilometers of seawater above the sensors。我做这道题的时候只找到了前半句相对容易的定位,没耐心往下看后一段,但是很明确的觉得定位位置没错,所以要相信第一感觉,接着找,不要乱选或者找个不符合的定位胡乱说服自己。
    1 0 回复 2020-07-12 17:20:15
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    Vivi镕

    定位:the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter.
    很少反应,因此可以逃离光和电。因果关系,反应了就逃不掉了,应为反应后就会带电荷和光
    0 0 回复 2019-08-29 07:50:39
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      372431arufk回复Vivi镕

      修饰的是space 讲的不是the interaction of neutrino。rarely反应,基本不反应,去推测如果反应了之后会咋样也是没道理的

      0 0 回复 2020-03-03 14:30:50

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    Kelly韵啊韵

    选了E,定位在了第一段这里,不知道为什么错?也是interact
    With (as its name implies) no electric charge, and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where 【light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter.】
    0 0 回复 2018-10-26 15:27:49
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    槐根一梦山河邈

    定位在“when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors. Th”
    1 0 回复 2018-10-16 23:54:00
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    二战勇士一号

    这道题在搞什么?正确率0?
    1 0 回复 2018-10-10 19:22:42
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