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Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.

Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.

The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.

Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines “technology” in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semielectronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way

management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: “When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?”

Which of the following statements about Clark’s study of the telephone exchange can be inferred from information in the passage?

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当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-05-21 16:50:43 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

下列哪一项Clark关于电信交换的描述可以从文章的信息中推断出来

A. Clark进行研究的目的是为了削弱Braverman关于科技功能论点

B. Clark的研究应该在工作和管理争议背景下讨论

C. Clark关于执行和组织改变的观点

D. Clark总结新科技的执行对于工作和管理同样利益

E. Clark对于转换系统的分析仅仅适用于他的研究

 

题目解析:

A. 文章并未谈到任何Clark研究的目的是为了削弱Braverman的观点

B. 文章并未谈到两者的争议

C. 正确

D. 文章并未谈到利益(benefits)

E. 文章讲到Clark的研究适用于许多方面



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    leon小恶魔

    Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance.
    0 0 回复 2022-04-04 15:31:09
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