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【OG20-P808-874题】

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

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当前版本由 素色1997 更新于2018-03-07 09:37:09 感谢由 素色1997 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

  (A)Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
  【错误1】 代词指代:在GMAT考察的标准书面英语中,代词出现在主语位置时,如果可能,则优先指代相邻主谓结构的主语(即“平行指代”优先)。因此“it has worked well in the past”中的“it”语法上优先指代“Heavy commitment”。而其本意上指代“a course of action”,因此指代不明。
  【错误2】 句子意思:“makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble……”本意上用“it”作形式宾语指代“to miss……”,但根据“make sb. Likely to do sth.”的用法,这里“it”也有指代“heavy commitment”,使“makes it likely to miss signs……”表达“使得过度投入更有可能所过未来问题的信号……”的含义。因此存在歧义。
  (B)An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.
  【错误】 句子意思:语法上无法明确“missing signs of incipient trouble……”动作的发出者,也就是逻辑主语是谁,因此表
  意没有(E)准确。(E)中“……is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble……”则能明确表现出“miss signs……”是“executive”发出的动作。
  (C)An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
  【错误】 代词指代:“it has worked well in the past”中的代词“it”本意上指代“a course of action”,但语法上,“it”不存在平行指代的对象,因此应尽可呢遵循“就近指代”原则,即指代与“it”较近的指代对象,“a course of action”无疑比“incipient trouble”举例“it”更远,因此“it”语法上不能明确地指代“a course of action”,指代不明。
  (D)Executives' being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear.
  【错误】 代词指代:在GMAT考察的标准书面英语中,同类代词在句子中反复出现是理应指代同物(人)否则指代不明,而本选项有两个“them”和一个“they”。本意上,第一个“them”指代“Executives”,第二个“them”和“they”指代“signs”,因此指代不明。
  (E)Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
  【正确】 动名词短语“Being heavily committed to a course of action”是主句的主语,其谓语为“is likely to……”。不定代词“one”(不定代词在语法规则中不按代词进行讨论,因此不存在指代问题)根据语义判断指代“a course of action”,根据固定搭配“make sb. do sth.”的用法可以明确判断出“miss signs……”的逻辑主语为“an executive”表意准确。
  【大意】 过度投入到一系列行动中,尤其是一系列过去已经奏效的行动,可能会使一个经理人错过未来麻烦的信号,或在信号出现时误读它们。
  【最优解题思路推荐】
  (A)、(C)、(D)均存在“指代不明”的问题,相比(E)的代词使用表意不佳。
  而(B)中“makes missing signs of incipient trouble……”的语义没有(E)中“make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble……”准确。
  因此虽然(E)中存在“Being heavily committed”这样看起来不太简洁的结构,但由于其他选项均存在更加严重的语法、语义错误,所以根据先判断语法错误,再判断语义错误,最后讨论简洁性问题的原则,我们只能选择相对不简洁但语法正确、表意合理的(E)。

当前版本由 Futurewinner 更新于2019-08-03 07:11:05 感谢由 Futurewinner 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

看你写了这么多,不好意思说你的解释不完全正正确,但是你的解释中有一个明显的不足,被你多次提到,很容易误导大家。it在原句中,也就是A选项指代它前面出现的名词,可以是 commitment, executive, course of action,当然it不能指代人,所以这里排除executive,那么剩下两个语法上均可以指代。注意代词就近指代上不是它离哪个名词近就是指代哪个名词。你一定见过which作为关系代词跳跃指代名词的情况吧,就近指代的说法是个理想的通常状况,在复杂语言结构上,它没有任何指导意义。你可以发现很多在一篇文章中某个句子中的代词指代了之前的其它的句子的某个名词,或者一本书的主人公,你可以发现在不同段落甚至不同章节里的代词指代在第一篇章第一次出现的主人公。除了语法上的判断关键要看,句义。在本题中,it 的谓语动词是worked 这是个实意动词,也就是个实际发生的动作,什么东西能发生这个动作? 句意上无论如何也不能是course of action,剩下的executive和commitment,最可能发出动作的是人,不可能是个抽象的commitment,但是可以是方法,因为方法可以是具体的,比如勾股定理works well on calculation of length of sides of right triangle。所以句义上这里it应该是指executive,但是用了it这个只能指代物的代词,所以错误。另外根据代词使用原则,在一个句子中一个代词指代要有一致性,也就是it之前指代了一个名词,它再次出现时必须还是指代那个名词,否则就会造成语义混乱。这是it在这里用法的第二个错误。在其它的解释项中你也有类似的代词用法理解不足。希望在这里能够阐述明确一些概念,让大家真正理解,避免进入误区。谢谢

当前版本由 715007m 更新于2020-06-21 14:34:28 感谢由 715007m 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

可以从句子结构来解题。

先看原文,有三句话,第一句大意是“采取行动”,第二句明显是插入语,大意是“特别当它(先不用管指代谁)在过去work well时”,第三句大意是“使之很可能 错过sign of trouble 或者  在出现的时候,误解 them(这里明显指代sign of trouble)”。


先不管第二句的插入语,可以看出原文的逻辑思路没什么大问题,即“采取行动,很可能错过 麻烦的迹象,或者误解这个迹象”。那么下面的选项中最好优先采用原题的逻辑,不要随便改变。

A,逻辑没问题,错误的地方 :1, by an executive,前面一般是个动作,此处是commitment,是个名词,用法不对,而且名词前面也没有冠词,有裸奔嫌疑;2,根据句意,应该是executive miss signs of trouble, 这是用的代词it不能指人,并且指代也不明;

B,改变了原题的逻辑,将executive提到前面做主语,不优选;跳过插入语,看主干,an executive makes missing signs of...likely,显然逻辑不对,此处miss 和 misinterpret应该是executive发出的动作,这里把它变成doing,想做为动名词,没必要;

C,改变了原题逻辑,将executive提到前面做主语,不优选;最后especially if it, it指代不明;

D,采用的原逻辑,但是executive's being heavily 不简洁;跳过插入语,makes them llikely, them指代不明,即使想指代executive,在本结构里也指代不了;

E,采用原逻辑,being committed  to a course of action 放在句首做主语,后面是一个插入语,紧接着是主干的系表结构,每一部分意思很明了,没有指代不清的情况。最优选。


如果发现有代词指代不明的嫌疑,先不要过分纠结要去区分清楚,可以先从其他方面入手,看看有没有其它更硬伤的地方。如果还是判断不出来,再去具体区分代词指代。


题目讨论 15条评论)

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  • 用户头像

    mmsaltyy

    主要还是没搞清指代
    0 0 回复 2021-04-06 02:05:46
  • 用户头像

    700冲冲冲!

    ron:
    C 'it' is ambiguous, because it could potentially refer either to 'course of action' (the intended antecedent) or to 'incipient trouble'. also note that grammatical parallelism doesn't help: both of those possible antecedents are objects of prepositions - neither is the subject of its own clause (which would thereby create parallelism with 'it', which is the subject of its clause). 
    
    E is the best choice here. i cringe a bit at the use of 'being' - my first thought is that we could make the sentence better by using a noun, such as 'commitment' - but then you'd need some sort of possessive pronoun to show that it's the executive who's committed. in any case, (e) is definitely the best of the options here, none of which is perfect by any stretch.
    0 0 回复 2021-04-05 08:56:46
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      700冲冲冲!回复700冲冲冲!

      ron:大多数以英语为母语的人第一次阅读时,肯定无法理解这里的“it”,原因是它和它的先行词太不平行了,但非母语者会很困惑

      0 0 回复 2021-04-05 09:17:52

    • 评论用户头像

      700冲冲冲!回复700冲冲冲!

      为什么一般不用being: the question you should be asking is when you should eliminate "being". the answer to that question is, ROUGHLY, that you should avoid "being" when expressing the IDENTITY or CHARACTERISTICS of some individual or thing. this is because "being" is usually unnecessary in such cases; there are simpler modifiers (such as appositives) that, while absolutely impossible to use in spoken language, are better in written language. example: being a cigar aficionado, john has strong opinions on when to use single-guillotine cigar cutters rather than double-guillotine cutters. --> bad. a cigar aficionado, john has strong opinions on when to use single-guillotine cigar cutters rather than double-guillotine cutters. --> good. notice that we can simply omit the "being" here. you don't want to omit "being" here, because it's not expressing identity: in the context of (e), it's a necessary verbal. (nice litmus test: try omitting it and see whether the sentence is still viable, perhaps with minor modifications. here, it isn't.) so, to sum up: if "being" expresses IDENTITY or CHARACTERISTICS, then kill it. otherwise, evaluate it on the same merits as you would any other verb.

      0 0 回复 2021-04-05 09:23:10

    • 评论用户头像

      700冲冲冲!回复700冲冲冲!

      A选项: * "heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action" is awkward and difficult to read. (you may have to be a native speaker to pick up on this, though) 【it is ADJ…结构中动词要有特定的主语】 much more importantly: * makes it likely to miss... this doesn't work. technically, this would mean that "it" - an unspecified entity - is likely to miss the signs. if you use the "it is ADJ..." construction, and the verb has a specific subject, you MUST include that subject in the construction.

      0 0 回复 2021-04-05 09:36:41

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    428733rqom

    哎,一点头绪都没有
    1 0 回复 2020-11-12 09:23:18
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    1272886aklo

    B选项makes的逻辑主语不就是executive吗?不理解解析为什么说不明确
    1 1 回复 2020-10-10 15:07:14
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      343689xgwal回复1272886aklo

      我也想说,我觉得已经很明确了啊

      1 0 回复 2020-10-28 11:07:16

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    可欣同学

    解析真透彻
    0 0 回复 2020-08-16 11:15:48
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    981978cndam

    “a course of action”无疑比“incipient trouble”举例“it”更远,因此“it”语法上不能明确地指代“a course of action”,指代不明。
    0 0 回复 2020-08-04 21:36:01
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    Vincent Hu

    如何肢解这道题:
    【A】错误在 makes it likely... 这句话。
    1. 首先it指代不明(读起来就会觉得很模糊)
    2. miss signs的主语应该是经理人,但没有体现
    【B】逻辑错误(经理人让自己miss signs?)
    【C】it指代不明
    【D】misinterpreting 应改为to + verb
    
    另外being的用法在这里是没有什么大问题的,都是作句子主语。即使有赘余嫌疑,也比其他错误要小
    建议想冲刺高高分的同学抛弃对being的偏见,并不是所有的being都错。choose the better one ^-^
    1 0 回复 2020-01-15 18:39:44
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      Vincent Hu回复Vincent Hu

      杜绝花里胡哨。Do not study for GMAT, train for it.

      0 0 回复 2020-01-15 18:41:49

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    坚持6个月

    one that是什么用法?that不是不可以修饰人吗
    0 1 回复 2019-12-15 09:16:45
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      209754htq回复坚持6个月

      可以看做是a course of action的同位语,这里的one指的不是人,而是a course of action中的一种:过度投入到一系列action中,特别是以前worked well的action(....会使得一个经理人....

      0 0 回复 2020-02-19 15:49:48

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    Diet

    1.首先我不同意因为work,所以主语只能是人发出来,work还有运作的意思,所以主语是物没有问题。
    2.很多人说in the past 不能用完成时,但是正确答案E用的也是完成时,所以这不是主要问题。根据OG解析,本题主要考代词指代:
    A.第一个it前面有三个单数名词,指代不清。第二个it语义上跟第一个it指代的东西不一致。个人认为第一个it指a course of action, 第二个it指executive,it不能指人,不对。
    B.改变句意,原意说的是executive的strategy使得,但这里的主语是executive人使得。而且后面的ones和they指代一样的东西signs,却用了不一样的指代词。
    C.it指代不清,因为前面有不只一个单数名词。
    D.两个them指代不一样的名词,第一个是executives,第二个是signs。还有miss与misinterpreting不平行。
    E.代词指代清晰。
    1 0 回复 2019-10-24 05:45:49
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      今天周几啊回复Diet

      请问D . one’s doing sth 能不能用作主语啊

      0 0 回复 2019-11-01 19:51:46

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      全智贤回复 今天周几啊

      不简洁

      0 0 回复 2020-02-07 20:53:37

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      Jeaninla回复Diet

      可以 但是D的错误在于后面平行结构 不一致

      0 0 回复 2020-03-02 17:58:21

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    847716opn

    C 改变句子意思 is likely to miss or misinterpret的主语原句是heavy commitment C的主语变成executive
    0 0 回复 2019-10-04 09:35:14
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      209754htq回复847716opn

      miss or misinterpret的逻辑主语本来就应该是sb./executive。C错误的原因不是改变句子意思,而是后面的it和指代的a course of action离得太远,导致指代不明。

      0 0 回复 2020-02-19 15:55:00

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    nanhahaha

    A it 指代
    B???
    C时态 has worked,in the past 跟过去时
    D being makes
    0 0 回复 2019-08-14 14:56:19
    • 评论用户头像

      Diet回复nanhahaha

      正确答案E 也是has worked,in the past 跟过去时,跟C一样。

      0 0 回复 2019-10-24 04:21:59

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    AUCHUI

    RON E e is the best choice here. i cringe a bit at the use of 'being' - my first thought is that we could make the sentence better by using a noun, such as 'commitment' - but then you'd need some sort of possessive pronoun to show that it's the executive who's committed. in any case, (e) is definitely the best of the options here, none of which is perfect by any stretch.
    0 0 回复 2018-12-15 19:04:33
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      AUCHUI回复AUCHUI

      you don't want to omit "being" here, because it's not expressing identity: in the context of (e), it's a necessary verbal. (nice litmus test: try omitting it and see whether the sentence is still viable, perhaps with minor modifications. here, it isn't.)

      0 0 回复 2018-12-15 19:11:59

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    Weibo750

    A.	* makes it likely to miss doesn't work. 
    technically, this would mean that "it" - an unspecified entity - is likely to miss the signs.
    if you use the "it is ADJ..." construction, and the verb has a specific subject, you MUST include that subject in the construction. it is likely that the executive will miss...
    B. 这句话意思是 executive makes missing signs likely 语意不对;
    C.it 指示不明 D misprinting和to miss 不平行
    0 0 回复 2018-12-02 20:46:35
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    ChloeHH

    D 的being吓死我了
    0 0 回复 2018-11-05 22:02:49
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    Rofinia

    注意being放句首做主语
    0 0 回复 2018-08-09 16:54:22
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