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Biologists have advanced two theories to explain why schooling of fish occurs in so many fish species. Because schooling is particularly widespread among species of small fish, both theories assume that schooling offers the advantage of some protection from predators.

Proponents of theory A dispute the assumption that a school of thousands of fish is highly visible. Experiments have shown that any fish can be seen, even in very clear water, only within a sphere of 200 meters in diameter. When fish are in a compact group, the spheres of visibility overlap. Thus the chance of a predator finding the school is only slightly greater than the chance of the predator finding a single fish swimming alone. Schooling is advantageous to the individual fish because a predator's chance of finding any particular fish swimming in the school is much smaller than its chance of finding at least one of the same group of fish if the fish were dispersed throughout an area.

However, critics of theory A point out that some fish form schools even in areas where predators are abundant and thus little possibility of escaping detection exists. They argue that the school continues to be of value to its members even after detection. They advocate theory B, the "confusion effect," which can be explained in two different ways.

Sometimes, proponents argue, predators simply cannot decide which fish to attack. This indecision supposedly results from a predator's preference for striking prey that is distinct from the rest of the school in appearance. In many schools the fish are almost identical in appearance, making it difficult for a predator to select one.The second explanation for the "confusion effect" has to do with the sensory confusion caused by a large number of prey moving around the predator. Even if the predator makes the decision to attack a particular fish, the movement of other prey in the school can be distracting. The predator's difficulty can be compared to that of a tennis player trying to hit a tennis ball when two are approaching simultaneously.

【OG18-P363-407题】

According to one explanation of the "confusion effect", a fish that swims in a school will have greater advantages for survival if it

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-10-27 15:32:33 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
这题问"confusion effect",即解释理论B中所述,下列那种情况下一条鱼有较高的存活率,定位到最后一段。能回答问题的一共有两点,第一点在“Sometimes”到“to select one”之间,说鱼数量多导致捕食者难以决定究竟吃谁;第二点在“The second explanation”到文章结尾,说鱼群中大量鱼的运动会使捕食者分心而难以捕食成功。五个选项中,A选项是第二段解释理论A的内容,B、C、E都是文章里没有提到的东西,只有D选项符合定位信息第一点。
当前版本由 hbhbh 更新于2020-05-25 13:15:07 感谢由 hbhbh 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
生物学家提出了两种原理可用来解释为什么很多鱼类都出现群居的现象。【point,2种观点-观点对比题-预判:文章接下来要分别阐述2种观点】因为群居在很多小鱼中是很普遍的,这两种原理都认为群居有利于保护鱼类免受捕食者的伤害.
【阐述1种theory】A观点的赞成者不认为鱼类聚居是容易被发现的。实验表明任何可以被看见的鱼,即使是在很清澈的水里,都只能在直径200米的范围内。当鱼类混居时,视野范围就会重叠。因此捕食者能够找到聚居鱼类的可能性很少(只比捕到单独的鱼高一点)。聚居对于单独的鱼也是有利的,因为一个捕食者能够捕道它(在聚居群中)的几率仅仅很小,比鱼群分散时早到一个群体的几率小得多。
【A和B的联系,指出A的缺点,再引出B】转折,theory A的反对者指出一些鱼类甚至在捕食者很多的地方聚居,所以很难逃出捕食者的追捕(这个可能性也存在)。他们认为聚居也是有价值的,‘捕食者察觉’后,可以保护到一些鱼类。这些人支持的B观点-condusion effect-
混乱影响‘,这个effect可以通过2种方式来解释。
有时候,赞成者认为不是指不能决定要去攻击哪一条鱼,这种犹豫不决是因为捕食者偏向于追捕一些外貌与聚居中鱼类不同的猎物,在大多数聚居中,鱼类在外观上一般都是相同的,这使得捕食者很难选择。第二种解释是:confusion effect跟(很多猎物围绕着一个捕食者引起的)感知混乱有关,尽管捕食者可以决定攻击哪一条鱼,但是别的猎物的移动很容易分散注意力。捕食者的困难就跟一个网球运动员试着打(同时飞来的两个球中的)一个球一样困难。

题目讨论 (1条评论)

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    sky759

    可以解释下选项B吗?第三段不也表示了就算离捕食者很近也没关系吗?
    0 0 回复 2017-03-22 16:48:02
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      gmatgogo回复sky759

      C选项是说比较大的鱼群,小的鱼群更安全,我觉得不对啊,肯定在大鱼群更安全因为更容易confusion effect.

      0 0 回复 2017-07-11 03:54:36

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      mengdan回复sky759

      B确实没有提及,你细读下文章就知道了

      0 0 回复 2017-11-15 19:22:07

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