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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1) the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction, (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands—i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws—and set aside or reserved, and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States’ acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

The "pragmatic approach" mentioned in highlight text of the passage is best defined as one that

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当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-04-30 17:50:07 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. 不是基于法律定义,而是基于实际情况

A. 一致

B. 这个方法针对的是印第安人,不是所有人

C. D. E. 无关



题目讨论 2条评论)

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  • 用户头像
    进步大于完美

    首先,里面说了this+标亮的地方,说明,高亮的地方是前面有的。就看前面一句。
    0 0 回复 2018-05-14 17:08:45
    • 评论用户头像

      默默回复进步大于完美

      要仔细看选项,把握逻辑性,和内容相似性

      0 0 回复 2018-05-17 07:35:27

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    yanhairiluo113

    想知道pragmatic approach的意思就要看其前句:...is a question of practice, not of legal definition, 即事实上存在,虽然法律没有给予名义上的界定
    A正确,符合文中意思
    B错误,未能指出事实上和名义上的区别
    C错误,同上
    D错误,与practical effect such a recognition is likely to have on other citizens
    E错误,与ignore precedents无关
    0 0 回复 2015-11-03 10:11:35
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