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In Winters v. United States (1908), the Supreme Court held that the right to use waters flowing through or adjacent to the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation was reserved to American Indians by the treaty establishing the reservation. Although this treaty did not mention water rights, the Court ruled that the federal government, when it created the reservation, intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless. Later decisions, citing Winters, established that courts can find federal rights to reserve water for particular purposes if (1) the land in question lies within an enclave under exclusive federal jurisdiction, (2) the land has been formally withdrawn from federal public lands—i.e., withdrawn from the stock of federal lands available for private use under federal land use laws—and set aside or reserved, and (3) the circumstances reveal the government intended to reserve water as well as land when establishing the reservation.

Some American Indian tribes have also established water rights through the courts based on their traditional diversion and use of certain waters prior to the United States’ acquisition of sovereignty. For example, the Rio Grande pueblos already existed when the United States acquired sovereignty over New Mexico in 1848. Although they at that time became part of the United States, the pueblo lands never formally constituted a part of federal public lands; in any event, no treaty, statute, or executive order has ever designated or withdrawn the pueblos from public lands as American Indian reservations. This fact, however, has not barred application of the Winters doctrine. What constitutes an American Indian reservation is a question of practice, not of legal definition, and the pueblos have always been treated as reservations by the United States. This pragmatic approach is buttressed by Arizona v. California (1963), wherein the Supreme Court indicated that the manner in which any type of federal reservation is created does not affect the application to it of the Winters doctrine. Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.

The passage suggests that the legal rights of citizens other than American Indians to the use of water flowing into the Rio Grande pueblos are

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 Edward. 更新于2021-04-30 17:50:43 感谢由 Edward. 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

1. 主旨题

A. 正确的局部观点

B. 印第安部落确实有水权

C. 没有出现质疑

D. 没有提到最早日期

E. 没提保留地之间的不同



题目讨论 4条评论)

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    hbhbh

    Therefore, the reserved water rights of Pueblo Indians have priority over other citizens’ water rights as of 1848, the year in which pueblos must be considered to have become reservations.
    0 0 回复 2020-04-11 14:45:19
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    发呆的夜之亡魂

    C选项看了半天才发现真正的C才在后面,前半部分都是AB选项
    0 0 回复 2018-06-15 10:28:09
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    默默

    找到关键词对应,或逻辑对应
    0 0 回复 2018-05-17 08:36:46
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    yanhairiluo113

    定位于文章末句,文章末句提到,1848年pueblo变成保留地后,pueblo印第安人的用水权优于其他公民
    A错误,文章提到Arizona v. California法令有助于Rio Grande pueblos的印第安人获得水权,因此不可能保障其他居民的用水权。此选项与文章内容相反
    B错误,文章未提及此意
    C错误,文章未提及此意
    D错误,文章虽然在第17行提及了联邦公共用地,但是没有提及可以保障其他公民的用水权,该选项属于提及但无关
    E正确,正确表达了文章末句的意思
    0 0 回复 2015-11-03 10:10:34
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    2m36s

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    44%

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