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Milankovitch proposed in the early twentieth century that the ice ages were caused by variations in the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. For some time this theory was considered untestable, largely because there was no sufficiently precise chronology of the ice ages with which the orbital variations could be matched.

To establish such a chronology it is necessary to determine the relative amounts of land ice that existed at various times in the Earth’s past. A recent discovery makes such a determination possible: relative land-ice volume for a given period can be deduced from the ratio of two oxygen isotopes, 16 and 18, found in ocean sediments. Almost all the oxygen in water is oxygen 16, but a few molecules out of every thousand incorporate the heavier isotope 18. When an ice age begins, the continental ice sheets grow, steadily reducing the amount of water evaporated from the ocean that will eventually return to it. Because heavier isotopes tend to be left behind when water evaporates from the ocean surfaces, the remaining ocean water becomes progressively enriched in oxygen 18. The degree of enrichment can be determined by analyzing ocean sediments of the period, because these sediments are composed of calcium carbonate shells of marine organisms, shells that were constructed with oxygen atoms drawn from the surrounding ocean. The higher the ratio of oxygen 18 to oxygen 16 in a sedimentary specimen, the more land ice there was when the sediment was laid down.

As an indicator of shifts in the Earth’s climate, the isotope record has two advantages. First, it is a global record: there is remarkably little variation in isotope ratios in sedimentary specimens taken from different continental locations. Second, it is a more continuous record than that taken from rocks on land. Because of these advantages, sedimentary evidence can be dated with sufficient accuracy by radiometric methods to establish a precise chronology of the ice ages. The dated isotope record shows that the fluctuations in global ice volume over the past several hundred thousand years have a pattern: an ice age occurs roughly once every 100,000 years. These data have established a strong connection between variations in the Earth’s orbit and the periodicity of the ice ages.

However, it is important to note that other factors, such as volcanic particulates or variations in the amount of sunlight received by the Earth, could potentially have affected the climate. The advantage of the Milankovitch theory is that it is testable; changes in the Earth’s orbit can be calculated and dated by applying Newton’s laws of gravity to progressively earlier configurations of the bodies in the solar system. Yet the lack of information about other possible factors affecting global climate does not make them unimportant.

【OG19-P401-480题】

It can be inferred from the passage that the isotope record taken from ocean sediments would be less useful to researchers if which of the following were true?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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暂无雷哥网文字解析
当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-04 12:05:04 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
文中第三段谈及了I记录的两大优势:具有全球性,即从不同大陆提取的样本差异较小;与陆地岩石记录相比,连续性较好。因为该题为削弱题,因此将以上两大优势分别取非即可
A错误,与I的轻重没有关系,而且I的轻重是第二段的内容
B正确,将文中的more continuous取非为less continuous,而该选项使用more gaps in its sequence来表达less continuous的意思
C错误,与“100,000年”无关,并且这是第三段末尾提及的信息
D错误,in fresh water不对,文中的意思是“从不同大陆提取的样本差异较小”,而与淡水无关
E错误,跟“多少年”无关

题目讨论 (2条评论)

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    701224rwt

    定位isotope record 第三段
    1 0 回复 2019-11-26 13:56:31
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    yukiandlucy

    more gaps in the sequence 替换not continuous我觉得有点不好……
    算了……
    1 1 回复 2018-07-30 21:03:48
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