After evidence was obtained in the 1920s that the universe is expanding, it became reasonable to ask: Will the universe continue to expand indefinitely, or is there enough mass in it for the mutual attraction of its constituents to bring this expansion to a halt? It can be calculated that the critical density of matter needed to brake the expansion and "close" the universe is equivalent to three hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. But the density of the observable universe-luminous matter in the form of galaxies-comes to only a fraction of this. If the expansion of the universe is to stop, there must be enough invisible matter in the universe to exceed the luminous matter in density by a factor of roughly 70.
Our contribution to the search for this "missing matter" has been to study the rotational velocity of galaxies at various distances from their center of rotation. It has been known for some time that outside the bright nucleus of a typical spiral galaxy luminosity falls off rapidly with distance from the center. If luminosity were a true indicator of mass, most of the mass would be concentrated toward the center. Outside the nucleus the rotational velocity would decrease geometrically with distance from the center, in conformity with Kepler's law. Instead we have found that the rotational velocity in spiral galaxies either remains constant with increasing distance from the center or increases slightly. This unexpected result indicates that the falloff in luminous mass with distance from the center is balanced by an increase in nonluminous mass.
Our findings suggest that as much as 90 percent of the mass of the universe is not radiating at any wavelength with enough intensity to be detected on the Earth. Such dark matter could be in the form of extremely dim stars of low mass, of large planets like Jupiter, or of black holes, either small or massive. While it has not yet been determined whether this mass is sufficient to close the universe, some physicists consider it significant that estimates are converging on the critical value.
主题题，文中提出了一个问题并且作者尝试回答该问题，文中多次出现we have found, our findings suggest等说明作者总结研究发现
【1】提出宇宙正在膨胀 1.1 提出疑问，会继续膨胀，还是停止呢？ 1.2 膨胀停止临界点：3 1.3 现在还达不到临界点 【2】我们的其中一项研究：暗物质的旋转速度 2.1 传统的亮度观点：约外越暗 2.2 传统的速度观点：越外越慢 2.3 我们认为的速度观点：越外不变/快一点 【3】这个研究发现表明了：宇宙中有很多物质在地球上无法观测到