Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization. Put more strongly, technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes this possibility has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis, that emphasizes the way machinery reflects social choices. For Braverman, the shape of a technological system is subordinate to the manager’s desire to wrest control of the labor process from the workers. Technological change is construed as the outcome of negotiations among interested parties who seek to incorporate their own interests into the design and configuration of the machinery. This position represents the new mainstream called social constructivism.
The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism: technological determinists are supposed to believe, for example, that machinery imposes appropriate forms of order on society. The alternative to constructivism, in other words, is to view technology as existing outside society, capable of directly influencing skills and work organization.Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. Theoretically he defines "technology" in terms of relationships between social and technical variables. Attempts to reduce the meaning of technology to cold, hard metal are bound to fail, for machinery is just scrap unless it is organized functionally and supported by appropriate systems of operation and maintenance. At the empirical level Clark shows how a change at the telephone exchange from maintenance-intensive electromechanical switches to semi-electronic switching systems altered work tasks, skills, training opportunities, administration, and organization of workers. Some changes Clark attributes to the particular way management and labor unions negotiated the introduction of the technology, whereas others are seen as arising from the capabilities and nature of the technology itself. Thus Clark helps answer the question: "When is social choice decisive and when are the concrete characteristics of technology more important?"
The information in the passage suggests that Clark believes that which of the following would be true if social constructivism had not gained widespread acceptance?
The constructivists gain acceptance by misrepresenting technological determinism，定位在这里。
if not gain widespread,那就不会mispresenting，所以就是greater understand
technology can be a primary determinant of social and managerial organization，但是has been obscured by the recent sociological fashion, exemplified by Braverman’s analysis
排除E的几个点： 1.题干问道clark和social constructivism，始终把握二者的battle点（即文章讨论的主体），即technology与social change，E将social change局限在了business，不佳； 2.选E的人（比如我）错误定位在第一段：Clark makes the point that the characteristics of a technology have a decisive influence on job skills and work organization.这个定位首先距离太远，不佳；其次，该定位实为clark的观点，换句话说，不论social constructivism有无gain widespread acceptance，这个观点始终不变，所以不存在一个比较级greater part 3.说回E本身，问问自己，难道social constructivism没有gain widespread acceptance，Technology就能对determining the role of business更有作用了？其实不管sc是否被接受，technology对于determining the role of business的作用都是客观存在的，大就是大，小就是小。 而聪明的选项B说的就人们的主观认知，greater understanding，这才是那些widespread acceptance的影响
Jon Clark’s study of the effect of the modernization of a telephone exchange on exchange maintenance work and workers is a solid contribution to a debate that encompasses two lively issues in the history and sociology of technology: technological determinism and social constructivism.
a solid contribution to a debate对应C中a successful challenge
定位在最后一段段首Clark refutes the extremes of the constructivists by both theoretical and empirical arguments. refutes可与challenge对应
0 0 回复 2022-06-19 12:35:16
第三段social gain acceptance是因为misrepresent 科技的作用。所以题目如果social是错的，没有获得更多的认可—则取反—科技的作用会被大家认可
0 0 回复 2018-11-16 19:06:51
推理+细节题 would be true---应是S2: /Put more strongly, technology can be /a primary determinant of social and managerial organization. Clark believes /this possibility/ has been obscured
定位词， Put more strongly,