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All the cells in a particular plant start out with the same complement of genes. How then can these cells differentiate and form structures as different as roots, stems, leaves, and fruits? The answer is that only a small subset of the genes in a particular kind of cell are expressed, or turned on, at a given time. This is accomplished by a complex system of chemical messengers that in plants include hormones and other regulatory molecules. Five major hormones have been identified: auxin, abscisic acid, cytokinin, ethylene, and gibberellin. Studies of plants have now identified a new class of regulatory molecules called oligosaccharins.

Unlike the oligosaccharins, the five well-known plant hormones are pleiotropic rather than specific; that is, each has more than one effect on the growth and development of plants. The five have so many simultaneous effects that they are not very useful in artificially controlling the growth of crops. Auxin, for instance, stimulates the rate of cell elongation, causes shoots to grow up and roots to grow down, and inhibits the growth of lateral shoots. Auxin also causes the plant to develop a vascular system, to form lateral roots, and to produce ethylene.

The pleiotropy of the five well-studied plant hormones is somewhat analogous to that of certain hormones in animals. For example, hormones from the hypothalamus in the brain stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to synthesize and release many different hormones, one of which stimulates the release of hormones from the adrenal cortex. These hormones have specific effects on target organs all over the body. One hormone stimulates the thyroid gland, for example, another the ovarian follicle cells, and so forth. In other words, there is a hierarchy of hormones.

Such a hierarchy may also exist in plants. Oligosaccharins are fragments of the cell wall released by enzymes: different enzymes release different oligosaccharins. There are indications that pleiotropic plant hormones may actually function by activating the enzymes that release these other, more specific chemical messengers from the cell wall.

According to the passage, the five well-known plant hormones are not useful in controlling the growth of crops because

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当前版本由 ya**** 更新于2015-11-12 15:40:14 感谢由 ya**** 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
文章谈到,五种激素对植物生长的影响不唯一
A错误,跟functions无关
B正确
C错误,与function without the others无关
D错误,不符合文章意思
E错误,带有明显标志only

题目讨论 (2条评论)

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    Mariposa爱学习

    each have various effects=强调每个荷尔蒙自己有很多不同的作用---对应文章所说simultaneous
    答案不是说they have various effects=荷尔蒙们有不同的作用---似乎强调的是荷尔蒙之间的不同作用
    
    each have得翻译成每一个都有
    0 0 回复 2020-11-16 20:47:30
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    空杯心澄

    不要自己对文章的选项做过多的猜测。文章没有说的一律判为不知道
    0 0 回复 2016-03-24 22:21:11
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