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The general density dependence model can be applied to explain the founding of specialist firms (those attempting to serve a narrow target market). According to this model, specialist foundings hinge on the interplay between legitimation and competitive forces, both of which are functions of the density (total number) of firms in a particular specialist population. Legitimation occurs as a new type of firm moves from being viewed as unfamiliar to being viewed as a natural way to organize. At low density levels, each founding increases legitimation, reducing barriers to entry and easing subsequent foundings. Competition occurs because the resources that firms seek--customers, suppliers, and employees--are limited, but as long as density is low relative to plentiful resources, the addition of another firm has a negligible impact on the intensity of competition. At high density levels, however, competitive effects outweigh legitimation effects, discouraging foundings. The more numerous the competitors, the fiercer the competition will be and the smaller will be the incentive for new firms to enter the field.

While several studies have found a significant correspondence between the density dependence model and actual patterns of foundings, other studies have found patterns not consistent with the model. A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level. Thus a national-level analysis can understate the true legitimation and competitive forces as well as the number of foundings in an industry that is internationally integrated. Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas foundings. For example, if a type of firm becomes established in the United States, that information transcends borders, reduces uncertainties, and helps foundings of that type of firm in other countries. Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels.

The primary purpose of the passage is to

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当前版本由 kisenana 更新于2015-11-04 11:46:53 感谢由 kisenana 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
文章首先提出一个结论:GDDM可以解释specialist firms的建立---解释这个“model”能被应用的原理 ---有些情况不能用这个“model”---提出一种可能的解释 ——这个model还是可以解释的
model本身是没有问题的,出现的inconsistency是可以解释的,说明并没有本质上质疑这个model
选项A question the validity错误
选项B 文章并不是指出一些inconsistencies,这只是其中一个小点
选项C revison未提及
选项D provide specific examples to illustrate its use没有举例子说这个model怎么用的
选项E 正确

题目讨论 (4条评论)

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    小宇宙

    Even within national contexts, studies have found more support for the density dependence model when they employ broader geographic units of analysis--for example, finding that the model's operation is seen more clearly at the state and national levels than at city levels. 从这句话看出作者对这model是积极的态度,在往上面看 A possible explanation for this inconsistency is that legitimation and competitive forces transcend national boundaries, while studies typically restrict their analysis to the national level.  其实意思是legitimation和competitive force是超越国家范畴的,你们这些studies 分析的时候却限制在了national level,言外之意,造成这种inconsistency是你们的studies的锅,不是这个model的锅,这个model还是很好的,就算出现了inconsistency,你也不能说这个model不对,是你们研究的有问题,所以就选E了~我觉得是这样
    4 0 回复 2017-11-26 13:00:04
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    lty

    Many industries are or are becoming international, and since media and information easily cross national borders, so should legitimation and its effects on overseas founding.        SHOULD....难道不是在说怎么修正吗
    0 0 回复 2017-10-17 22:56:31
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    林妖精

    为什么E是对的呢?明明在第二段都在说inconsistent的事情。
    1 0 回复 2017-09-07 09:02:34
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    见过夏天去非洲拍动物世界

    revision 修正。文章没有建议要修正,而是说出现这种不一致的情况是为啥!!!
    0 0 回复 2017-01-14 11:06:32
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