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The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.

In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.

The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers’ holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a pre-modern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.

The author's main point is that

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当前版本由 kisenana 更新于2015-11-02 15:50:28 感谢由 kisenana 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
文章是先提出了一个皮鞭观点:MMC起源于19ce英国。。。。,然后原因是什么,接着提出了16ce,17ce的更高的CTC,通常不被认为是起源,是因为什么。
然后提出了实际上,CTC贸易量大,早就促进了管理结构的变化。
接着提出ETC,确实和MMC不一样
但是ETC 还有具有进步意义
选项A with the establishment of chartered trading companies并没有直接说起源于16ce,17ce的ETC,而是说他应该被考虑进去
选项B 文章讲的主要不是ETC的成功条件
选项C 正确
选项D quite mistaken绝对词
选项E fundamentally the same as绝对词

题目讨论 (2条评论)

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    ziqi

    然而,尽管存在这些差异,早期的贸易公司还是以非常现代的方式有效地组织起来,作为更现代的结构的类似物,值得进一步研究。(最后一句
    0 0 回复 2022-04-26 17:59:19
  • 用户头像
    251710y

    文章第一句和最后一句共同决定的答案
    0 0 回复 2021-09-08 21:43:01
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