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阅读RC-9597 (第2/9题) Time Cost00:00
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The modern multinational corporation is described as having originated when the owner-managers of nineteenth-century British firms carrying on international trade were replaced by teams of salaried managers organized into hierarchies. Increases in the volume of transactions in such firms are commonly believed to have necessitated this structural change. Nineteenth-century inventions the steamship and the telegraph, by facilitating coordination of managerial activities, are described as key factors. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.

In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries. The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation. For example, in the Hudson's Bay Company, each trading outpost was managed by a salaried agent, who carried out the trade with the Native Americans, managed day-to-day operations, and oversaw the post's workers and servants. One chief agent, answerable to the Court of Directors in London through the correspondence committee, was appointed with control over all of the agents on the bay.

The early trading companies did differ strikingly from modern multinationals in many respects. They depended heavily on the national governments of their home countries and thus characteristically acted abroad to promote national interests. Their top managers were typically owners with a substantial minority share, whereas senior managers’ holdings in modern multinationals are usually insignificant. They operated in a preindustrial world, grafting a system of capitalist international trade onto a pre-modern system of artisan and peasant production. Despite these differences, however, early trading companies organized effectively in remarkably modern ways and merit further study as analogues of more modern structures.

It can be inferred from the passage that the author would characterize the activities engaged in by early chartered trading companies as being

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当前版本由 kisenana 更新于2015-11-02 15:41:04 感谢由 kisenana 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
定位到第2段第一句
选项A 第2段第一句提到的一系列活动,需要一系列的管理活动,正确
选项B too simple to be与文章内容不符
选项c as intricate(复杂的) as与文章内容不符,或者说未提及
选项D due to slow communications and unreliable means of transportation未提及
选项E hampered by the political demands 未提及

题目讨论 (4条评论)

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  • 用户头像
    ziqi

    The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation
    0 0 回复 2022-04-26 17:57:53
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    leon小恶魔

    The large volume of transactions associated with these activities seems to have necessitated hierarchical management structures well before the advent of modern communications and transportation.
    0 0 回复 2022-04-20 09:57:44
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    小钱爱学习

    s. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century chartered trading companies, despite the international scope of their activities, are usually considered irrelevant to this discussion: the volume of their transactions is assumed to have been too low and the communications and transport of their day too primitive to make comparisons with modern multinationals interesting.
    In reality, however, early trading companies successfully purchased and outfitted ships, built and operated offices and warehouses, manufactured trade goods for use abroad, maintained trading posts and production facilities overseas, procured goods for import, and sold those goods both at home and in other countries.
    0 0 回复 2021-11-05 13:41:26
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    xiaoyi

    C
    
    The author suggests that the 
    activities are fairly complex and in some ways similar to those of a modern multinational 
    corporation, but does not indicate how the activities compare in complexity with those carried out 
    by the largest multinational corporations today
    0 0 回复 2017-02-23 21:42:17
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