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The Black Death, a severe epidemic that ravaged fourteenth-century Europe, has intrigued scholars ever since Francis Gasquet's 1893 study contending that this epidemic greatly intensified the political and religious upheaval that ended the Middle Ages. Thirty-six years later, historian George Coulton agreed but, paradoxically, attributed a silver lining to the Black Death: prosperity engendered by diminished competition for food, shelter, and work led survivors of the epidemic into the Renaissance and subsequent rise of modern Europe.

In the 1930s, however, Evgeny Kosminsky and other Marxist historians claimed the epidemic was merely an ancillary factor contributing to a general agrarian crisis stemming primarily from the inevitable decay of European feudalism. In arguing that this decline of feudalism was economically determined, the Marxist asserted that the Black Death was a relatively insignificant factor. This became the prevailing view until after the Second World War, when studies of specific regions and towns revealed astonishing mortality rates ascribed to the epidemic, thus restoring the central role of the Black Death in history.

This central role of the Black Death (traditionally attributed to bubonic plague brought from Asia) has been recently challenged from another direction. Building on bacteriologist John Shrewsbury's speculations about mislabeled epidemics, zoologist Graham Twigg employs urban case studies suggesting that the rat population in Europe was both too sparse and insufficiently migratory to have spread plague. Moreover, Twigg disputes the traditional trade-ship explanation for plague transmissions by extrapolating from data on the number of dead rats aboard Nile sailing vessels in 1912. The Black Death, which he conjectures was anthrax instead of bubonic plague, therefore caused far less havoc and fewer deaths than historians typically claim.

Although correctly citing the exacting conditions needed to start or spread bubonic plague, Twigg ignores virtually a century of scholarship contradictory to his findings and employs faulty logic in his single-minded approach to the Black Death. His speculative generalizations about the numbers of rats in medieval Europe are based on isolated studies unrepresentative of medieval conditions, while his unconvincing trade-ship argument overlooks land-based caravans, the overland migration of infected rodents, and the many other animals that carry plague.

Which of the following statements is most compatible with Kosminsky's approach to history, as it is presented in the passage?

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 kisenana 更新于2015-11-05 11:22:49 感谢由 kisenana 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
关键词Kosminsky'定位到文章第2段K 是认为黑死病只是general agrarian crisis的一个辅助因素,更主要的是封建经济的decay,也就是说黑死病这个因素是在对应经济情况下的产生促进作用
选项A religious and political upheaval 未提及 是第一段内容
选项B competition for food, shelter, and work.第一段内容,未提及
选项C cannot be studied in isolation from that of the rest of the world.不能脱离世界去研究,文章未提及
选项D has been greatly exaggerated by other historians回文层次未提及
选项E 正确

题目讨论 (3条评论)

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    626617yh

    agrarian crisis 农业危机
    0 0 回复 2021-03-29 15:40:42
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    1713

    Evgeny Kosminsky and other Marxist historians claimed the epidemic was merely an ancillary factor contributing to
    the Marxist asserted that the Black Death was a relatively insignificant factor.
    0 0 回复 2018-10-09 22:03:15
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    xiaoyi

    信息分离
    0 0 回复 2017-08-25 22:28:11
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