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The view has prevailed for the better part of the twentieth century that small firms do not perform an important role in Western economies. Official policies in many countries have favored large units of production because there were strong reasons to believe that large firms were superior to small firms in virtually every aspect of economic performance--productivity, technological progress, and job security and compensation. However, in the 1970s, evidence began to suggest that small firms in some countries were outperforming their larger counterparts. Perhaps the best example of this trend was in the steel industry, where new firms entered the market in the form of "mini-mills," and small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment. Although no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are, in fact, more efficient, some researchers have concluded that the accumulated evidence to date indicates that small firms are at least not burdened with an inherent size disadvantage.

Thus, an alternative view has emerged in the economics literature, arguing that small firms make several important contributions to industrial markets. First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change. Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, and they also promote international competition through newly created niches. Finally, small firms in recent years have generated the preponderant share of new jobs.

However, empirical knowledge about the relative roles of large and small firms is generally based upon anecdotal evidence and case studies, and such evidence has proved inadequate to answer major questions concerning the role of small firms across various industries and nations. An additional difficulty is that it is not obvious what criteria one should use to distinguish small firms from large ones. While a “small firm” is often defined as an enterprise with fewer than 500 employees, research studies of small firms use a wide variety of definitions.

According to the passage, an important contribution of small firms to industrial markets is that small firms

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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 kisenana 更新于2015-11-05 14:13:35 感谢由 kisenana 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。
关键词contribution of small firms to industrial markets 
定位到第2段。第2段首先第一句说出现一种alternative view:small firms make several important contributions to industrial markets.接着说了3个贡献:1.innovation 2.competition 3.jobs
选项A operate more efficiently than large firms比大公司运营得更有效,回文内容未提及
选项B 提高high security and compensation未提及
选项C decrease错误,是增加了国际层面的竞争
选项D help prevent market turbulence 未提及
选项E 正确

题目讨论 (3条评论)

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    万恶的gmat

    讲师答案里说“选项D help prevent market turbulence 未提及” 
    实际上原文中有提到,只是意思相反~ "Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition"
    0 0 回复 2021-08-01 23:40:58
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    miya77

    A。错误 因为no systematic evidence exists to determine unequivocally whether smaller units of production are as efficient as large firms or are
    
    B。错误 即便是反驳也只说了 small-firm employment expanded, while many large companies shut down plants and reduced employment没有表明更多
    
    C。D。错误,是增加。Small firms generate积累了 market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, 
    
    E。正确。First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change
    0 0 回复 2017-09-20 21:49:14
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    xiaoyi

    First, small firms are often the source of the kind of innovative activity that leads to technological change. Small firms generate market turbulence that creates additional dimensions of competition, and they also promote international competition through newly created niches. Finally, small firms in recent years have generated the preponderant share of new jobs.
    0 0 回复 2017-08-27 10:37:09
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