In Forces of Production, David Noble examines the transformation of the machine-tool industry as the industry moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation. Noble writes from a Marxist perspective, and his central argument is that management, in its decisions to automate, conspired against labor: the power that the skilled machinists wielded in the industry was intolerable to management. Noble fails to substantiate this claim, although his argument is impressive when he applies the Marxist concept of "de-skilling"-- the use of technology to replace skilled labor --to the automation of the machine-tool industry. In automating, the industry moved to computer-based, digitalized "numerical control" (N/C) technology, rather than to artisan generated "record-playback" (R/P) technology.
Although both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor, Noble clearly prefers R/P, with its inherent acknowledgment of workers` skills: unlike N/C, its programs were produced not by engineers at their computers, but by skilled machinists, who recorded their own movements to "teach" machines to duplicate those movements. However, Noble's only evidence of conspiracy is that, although the two approaches were roughly equal in technical merit, management chose N/C. From this he concludes that automation is undertaken not because efficiency demands it or scientific advances allow it. but because it is a tool in the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor.
According to information in the passage, the term "de-skilling" refers to the
1.According to information in the passage, the term refers to the
A. loss of skills that are lost to industry when skilled workers are replaced by unskilled laborers（未提及）
B. substitution of mechanized processes for labor formerly performed by skilled workers
C. labor theory that automation is technologically comparable to skilled labor（未提及）
D. process by which skilled machinists “teach" machines to perform certain tasks（是R/P，不符）
E. exclusion of skilled workers from participation in the development of automated
substitution of A for B, 用A代替B, B是被替代的。B的substitution of mechanized processes for labor formerly performed by skilled workers对应原文的the use of technology to replace skilled labor
the use of technology to replace skilled labor 应该就是这句话的直接翻译，选E的估计是看到后面去了
0 0 回复 2019-09-18 13:40:31
原文“ the use of technology to replace skilled labor --to the automation of the machine-tool industry”，大概意思是使用技术来代替熟练的劳动力。B选项的意思是用机械化过程代替过去由熟练工人进行的劳动，属于原文改写。E选项中的exclusion of skilled workers有迷惑性，但这个选项完整的意思是禁止技术工人参与自动化技术的发展，文章中并没有提及“de-skilling”是禁止工人参与发展。
1 0 回复 2019-10-20 11:47:47
0 0 回复 2022-05-28 11:57:09
选项B，定位原文：the Marxist concept of “de-skilling”—the use of technology to replace skilled labor—to the automation of the machine-tool industry. 雷哥网的打字员真的很差劲，而且也没有文字校对！