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Jacob Burckhardt’s view that Renaissance European women “stood on a footing of perfect equality” with Renaissance men has been repeatedly cited by feminist scholars as a prelude to their presentation of rich historical evidence of women’s inequality. In striking contrast to Burckhardt, Joan Kelly in her famous 1977 essay, “Did Women Have a Renaissance?” argued that the Renaissance was a period of economic and social decline for women relative both to Renaissance men and to medieval women. Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection of both Kelly’s dark vision of the Renaissance and Burckhardt’s rosy one. Many recent works by these scholars stress the ways in which differences among Renaissance women—especially in terms of social status and religion—work to complicate the kinds of generalizations both Burckhardt and Kelly made on the basis of their observations about upper-class Italian women.

The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were, simply by virtue of their literacy, members of a tiny minority of the population, so it is risky to take their descriptions of their experiences as typical of “female experience” in any general sense. Tina Krontiris, for example, in her fascinating study of six Renaissance women writers, does tend at times to conflate “women” and “women writers,” assuming that women’s gender, irrespective of other social differences, including literacy, allows us to view women as a homogeneous social group and make that group an object of analysis. Nonetheless, Krontiris makes a significant contribution to the field and is representative of those authors who offer what might be called a cautiously optimistic assessment of Renaissance women’s achievements, although she also stresses the social obstacles Renaissance women faced when they sought to raise their “oppositional voices.” Krontiris is concerned to show women intentionally negotiating some power for themselves (at least in the realm of public discourse) against potentially constraining ideologies, but in her sober and thoughtful concluding remarks, she suggests that such verbal opposition to cultural stereotypes was highly circumscribed; women seldom attacked the basic assumptions in the ideologies that oppressed them.

【OG20-P456-596题】

The author of the passage discusses Krontiris primarily to provide an example of a writer who

  • 分析A选项
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  • 分析B选项
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  • 分析C选项
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  • 分析D选项
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  • 分析E选项
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当前版本由 Alinaaa 更新于2021-07-13 23:17:37 感谢由 Alinaaa 对此题目的解答所做出的贡献。

逻辑图:
JB认为文艺复兴男女平等。
JK认为文艺复兴女性在经济和社会地位上下降,相对于文艺复兴男性和中世纪女性。反对JB。
Trend反对JB和JK。
Trend关注中上层欧洲女性。这种女性是人口的一小部分,所以以偏概全是有风险的。举例,TK conflate女性和女性作家,认为无关社会地位,把女性就看做一个整体来研究。
然而,TK做出了贡献,是积极评价文艺复兴女性成就的代表。尽管她也强调了文艺复兴女性发出反对声音时,所面临的社会障碍。
TK在作品中有展现,女性有意图地捍卫自己的权利,这种权利与ideologist所倡导的相反。但是,她认为这种反对是被高度回避的。女性很少攻击ideologist的基本假设。

题目:
关键:文中有3个观点,JB、JK、Trend(TK属于trend的例子)。所以D正确,TK一定是反对JB和JK的。
A TK非常批评文艺复兴女性的writing。回文定位,TK有肯定,且积极评价。与原文信息不符,错误。
B TK同意JK。与原文信息不符,错误。
C TK误解了文艺复兴女性的作品。NM(not mention)
E TK根据很多社会和宗教内容,来研究文艺复兴女性。NM


题目讨论 7条评论)

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    snowman

    但是这题的问法并不好,作者提TK的首要目的并不是反驳JB和KJ,而是要说这个流派错误的把中上层女性作为研究对象,忽视了同时期女性的差距。
    0 0 回复 2018-05-11 14:54:15
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    snowman

    这篇文章极其复杂,在简短的两段提出了实质上四个流派的观点,其中最后两个是相互嵌入式又相矛盾的,1,以JB为例,把文艺复兴视为女性的绝对平等时期;2,KJ,把文艺复兴视为女权的倒退;3,近代学者,列举了文艺复兴女性的不同,把KJ和JB的观点复杂化(KJ和BJ实际上把意大利中上层阶级作为研究对象);4,而现代近现代流派里,一部分人又不可避免的把目光同样聚焦在中上层女性中,以TK为例。
    
    所以,弄清楚这个背景非常重要,TK实际上又作为近现代流派的人反驳了KB和KJ的观点,又同时在自己的流派里不可避免的又聚焦在中上层女性中犯了错误。所以这题选D。
    
    实际上文章还有第五点,说TK也不是完全不可取,因为他对文艺复兴提出了谨慎的乐观的评估。
    
    所以这篇文章的模式是:提出一个反驳一个,再提出第二个反驳第二个,是层层反驳的模式!!!
    2 0 回复 2018-05-11 14:45:52
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      ZoeyYoung回复snowman

      LZ分析的很好。不过根据逻辑其实只有三层,只是说第三层中虽然学者们批评了KJ和JB没有考虑到社会阶层和宗教,但是,文章想表达这些学者自己也不由自主的focus在了‘middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record.’

      0 0 回复 2018-09-05 22:08:59

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      凡人L回复snowman

      说得真好,谢谢您了!一下就懂了!

      0 0 回复 2020-07-16 19:33:43

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    snowman

    K 反对B和JK什么了??他们不都是把中上层女性作为研究对象吗????????
    1 0 回复 2018-05-11 14:28:01
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    李椅子

    这里的答案很跳跃:首先关注带有人名的举例的地方,有可能是后面也有可能是前面的内容
    A.并没有提到,根据态度,应该不是critical 的,只是提到了很risky;最多是定位到上一句
    B.定位:比较跳跃The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. Such women were,...(回上一段)Recently, however, a significant trend among feminist scholars has entailed a rejection ....那么K就是这种观点的支持者,都是反对K+B的观点,排B-->C对
    C.并没有提到,定位:irrespective of other social differences,最多了这个方面错了
    E.并没有,只是研究了文学方面的女性,还只有6个 ,没有a wide variety of
    0 0 回复 2017-12-01 00:15:15
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      李椅子回复李椅子

      是D对

      0 0 回复 2017-12-01 00:16:13

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    ssss666

    C选项中,misinterpret the works of certain Renaissance women=wrongly understand the works of certain Renaissance women,但是实际文章中,K对这些作品本身并没有进行错误的解读,而是把这些材料进行的错误的应用(以偏概全)
    
    The trend is also evident, however, in works focusing on those middle- and upper-class European women whose ability to write gives them disproportionate representation in the historical record. 但是,这种趋势在那些作品中也显现出来--那些专注于研究那些因为写作能力而给与她们在历史中不匹配的代表身份的中上层欧洲女性。
    1)欧洲那些中上层阶级女性有的会写作,这一能力使得她们在历史中获得了一定的代表性,但是作者认为这个代表性是成立的--disproportionate
    2)一群学者在研究这帮会写作的、在历史上有“代表”地位的中上层欧洲女性
    3)这个趋势在这群学者的作品中得到体现---what trend? =》大家都反对J's rose one and Kelly's dark one.
    0 0 回复 2017-06-13 22:36:03
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    你是风儿

    看到Krontiris这个人名定位到Tina Krontiris, for example,问的是例子的作用,那就回到原文的上文,上文在说的是Burckhardt和Kelly这两个人都在研究女人,然后提到他们的研究都给女人disproportionate representation,而Krontiris他却把不同身份的女人都合并为一个概念,符合选项D的意思

    A 本文并不是在讨论女人们的作品本身

    B K的观点和kelly相反,并非支持

    C 原文没有提到

    E 与Krontiris的意思相反

    0 0 回复 2015-11-20 09:42:07
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    感觉自己萌萌哒

    定位第二段,作者引用K的例子是为了支持第一段提出的scholar观点,而第一段中scholar的观点是反对JB&JK的。
    A is highly critical of the writings of certain Renaissance women 无涉及
    B supports Kelly’s view of women’s status during the Renaissance 原文相反,第一段中被反驳
    C has misinterpreted the works of certain Renaissance women 无涉及
    D has rejected the views of both Burckhardt and Kelly 
    E has studied Renaissance women in a wide variety of social and religious contexts 
    原文相反,K只研究了 literate women
    0 0 回复 2015-10-27 14:15:38
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